The prognostic significance of IDH2 mutations in AML depends on the location of the mutation.
Green CL., Evans CM., Zhao L., Hills RK., Burnett AK., Linch DC., Gale RE.
We have investigated the prognostic significance of isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) mutations in 1473 younger adult acute myeloid leukemia patients treated in 2 United Kingdom Medical Research Council trials. An IDH2 mutation was present in 148 cases (10%), 80% at R140 and 20% at R172. Patient characteristics and outcome differed markedly between the 2 mutations. IDH2(R140) significantly correlated with nucleophosmin mutations (NPM1(MUT)), whereas IDH2(R172) cases generally lacked other molecular mutations. An IDH2(R140) mutation was an independent favorable prognostic factor for relapse (P = .004) and overall survival (P = .008), and there was no significant heterogeneity with regard to NPM1 or FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) genotype. Relapse in FLT3/ITD(WT)NPM1(MUT)IDH2(R140) patients was lower than in favorable-risk cytogenetics patients in the same cohort (20% and 38% at 5 years, respectively). The presence of an IDH2(R172) mutation was associated with a significantly worse outcome than IDH2(R140), and relapse in FLT3/ITD(WT)NPM1(WT)IDH2(R172) patients was comparable with adverse-risk cytogenetics patients (76% and 72%, respectively).