Smoking and Mortality in Tianjin, China: A Death Registry-Based Case-Control Study, 2010-2014.
Li W., Jiang G-H., Wang D-Z., Zhang H., Xu Z-L., Zhang Y., Zheng W-L., Xue X-D., Peto R., Lam T-H.
INTRODUCTION: We conducted a mortality case-control study to assess the risks of all-cause and major causes of death attributable to smoking in Tianjin from 2010 through 2014. The death registry-based study used data from The Tianjin All Causes of Death Surveillance System, which collects information routinely on smoking of the deceased in the death certificate of Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: Cases (n = 154,086) and controls (n = 25,476) were deaths at 35 to 79 years from smoking-related and nonsmoking-related causes, respectively. Mortality rate ratios (RRs) for ever smokers versus never smokers, with adjustment for sex, 5-year age group, education, marital status, and year of death, and smoking-attributed fractions were calculated. RESULTS: The RRs in men were 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-1.43) for all causes and 3.07 (95% CI, 2.91-3.24) for lung cancer, and in women were 1.46 (95% CI, 1.39-1.54) and 4.07 (95% CI, 3.81-4.35). The smoking-attributed fractions for all causes and for lung cancer in men were 15.4% and 50.2%, respectively, and in women were 7.3% and 32.7%, respectively. Smoking annually caused an average of 3,756 (9.4%) deaths, mostly from lung cancer in men (47.4%) and women (66.9%). Women who started smoking before 30 had a higher RR (1.79; 95% CI, 1.63-1.97) than men who did so (1.48; 95% CI, 1.41-1.56). CONCLUSION: Lung cancer was the main cause of smoking-induced deaths in both sexes. Tobacco use is a major cause of premature deaths in men aged 35 to 79 years. Young women must be urged to not start smoking because they could have greater risk of all-cause and lung cancer deaths than men do.