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Individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiologic studies enable detailed investigation into the predictive ability of risk models. Here we address the challenges in appropriately combining such information across studies. Methods are exemplified by analyses of log C-reactive protein and conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, a collation of individual data from multiple prospective studies with an average follow-up duration of 9.8 years (dates varied). We derive risk prediction models using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis stratified by study and obtain estimates of risk discrimination, Harrell's concordance index, and Royston's discrimination measure within each study; we then combine the estimates across studies using a weighted meta-analysis. Various weighting approaches are compared and lead us to recommend using the number of events in each study. We also discuss the calculation of measures of reclassification for multiple studies. We further show that comparison of differences in predictive ability across subgroups should be based only on within-study information and that combining measures of risk discrimination from case-control studies and prospective studies is problematic. The concordance index and discrimination measure gave qualitatively similar results throughout. While the concordance index was very heterogeneous between studies, principally because of differing age ranges, the increments in the concordance index from adding log C-reactive protein to conventional risk factors were more homogeneous.

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/aje/kwt298

Type

Journal article

Journal

Am J Epidemiol

Publication Date

01/03/2014

Volume

179

Pages

621 - 632

Keywords

C index, D measure, coronary heart disease, individual participant data, inverse variance, meta-analysis, risk prediction, weighting, C-Reactive Protein, Coronary Disease, Data Interpretation, Statistical, Female, Humans, Male, Meta-Analysis as Topic, Middle Aged, Models, Statistical, Proportional Hazards Models, Prospective Studies, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors