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Lung cancer risks depend far more strongly on the duration than on the daily dose-rate of cigarette smoking. For example, a three-fold increase in the daily dose-rate may produce only about a three-fold increase in effect, while a three-fold increase in duration might produce about a 100-fold increase in effect. Hence, a few decades after cigarette smoking becomes widespread, national lung cancer rates may remain very misleadingly low, even though they will eventually become extremely high.


Journal article


IARC Sci Publ

Publication Date



23 - 33


Age Factors, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Risk, Smoking, Time Factors