Effects of Vitamin D on Blood Pressure, Arterial Stiffness, and Cardiac Function in Older People After 1 Year: BEST-D (Biochemical Efficacy and Safety Trial of Vitamin D).
Tomson J., Hin H., Emberson J., Kurien R., Lay M., Cox J., Hill M., Arnold L., Leeson P., Armitage J., Clarke R.
BACKGROUND: The relevance of vitamin D for prevention of cardiovascular disease is uncertain. The BEST-D (Biochemical Efficacy and Safety Trial of vitamin D) trial previously reported effects of vitamin D on plasma markers of vitamin D status, and the present report describes the effects on blood pressure, heart rate, arterial stiffness, and cardiac function. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 305 older people living in United Kingdom, who were allocated vitamin D 4000 IU (100 μg), vitamin D 2000 IU (50 μg), or placebo daily. Primary outcomes were plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and secondary outcomes were blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial stiffness in all participants at 6 and 12 months, plasma N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide levels in all participants at 12 months, and echocardiographic measures of cardiac function in a randomly selected subset (n=177) at 12 months. Mean (SE) plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations were 50 (SE 2) nmol/L at baseline and increased to 137 (2.4), 102 (2.4), and 53 (2.4) nmol/L after 12 months in those allocated 4000 IU/d, 2000 IU/d of vitamin D, or placebo, respectively. Allocation to vitamin D had no significant effect on mean levels of blood pressure, heart rate, or arterial stiffness at either 6 or 12 months, nor on any echocardiographic measures of cardiac function, or plasma N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide concentration at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of any significant effect of vitamin D on blood pressure, arterial stiffness, or cardiac function suggests that any beneficial effects of vitamin D on cardiovascular disease are unlikely to be mediated through these mechanisms. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search. Unique identifier: EudraCT number: 2011-005763-24a.