The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decay data provided by the newly developed stochastic atomic relaxation model BrIccEmis on dose point kernels (DPKs - radial dose distribution around a unit point source) and S-values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) of 14 Auger electron (AE) emitting radionuclides, namely 67Ga, 80mBr, 89Zr, 90Nb, 99mTc, 111In, 117mSn, 119Sb, 123I, 124I, 125I, 135La, 195mPt and 201Tl. Radiation spectra were based on the nuclear decay data from the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) RADTABS program and the BrIccEmis code, assuming both an isolated-atom and condensed-phase approach. DPKs were simulated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) code using event-by-event electron and photon transport. S-values for concentric spherical cells of various sizes were derived from these DPKs using appropriate geometric reduction factors. The number of Auger and Coster-Kronig (CK) electrons and x-ray photons released per nuclear decay (yield) from MIRD-RADTABS were consistently higher than those calculated using BrIccEmis. DPKs for the electron spectra from BrIccEmis were considerably different from MIRD-RADTABS in the first few hundred nanometres from a point source where most of the Auger electrons are stopped. S-values were, however, not significantly impacted as the differences in DPKs in the sub-micrometre dimension were quickly diminished in larger dimensions. Overestimation in the total AE energy output by MIRD-RADTABS leads to higher predicted energy deposition by AE emitting radionuclides, especially in the immediate vicinity of the decaying radionuclides. This should be taken into account when MIRD-RADTABS data are used to simulate biological damage at nanoscale dimensions.

Original publication




Journal article


Physics in medicine and biology

Publication Date





2239 - 2253


Department of Oncology, CR-UK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Department of Biomedical Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa.