Rationale, design, methods and baseline demography of participants of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial. ASCOT investigators.
Sever PS., Dahlöf B., Poulter NR., Wedel H., Beevers G., Caulfield M., Collins R., Kjeldsen SE., McInnes GT., Mehlsen J., Nieminen M., O'Brien E., Ostergren J.
OBJECTIVE: To test the primary hypothesis that a newer antihypertensive treatment regimen (calcium channel blocker +/- an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) is more effective than an older regimen (beta-blocker +/- a diuretic) in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). To test a second primary hypothesis that a statin compared with placebo will further protect against CHD endpoints in hypertensive subjects with a total cholesterol < or = 6.5 mmol/l. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, open, blinded endpoint trial with a double-blinded 2 x 2 factorial component. SETTING: Patients were recruited mainly from general practices. PATIENTS: Men and women aged 40-79 were eligible if their blood pressure was > or = 160 mmHg systolic or > or = 100 mmHg diastolic (untreated) or > or = 140 mmHg systolic or > or = 90 mmHg diastolic (treated) at randomization. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received either amlodipine (5/ 10 mg) +/- perindopril (4/8 mg) or atenolol (50/ 100 mg) +/- bendroflumethiazide (1.25/2.5 mg) +K+ with further therapy as required to reach a blood pressure of < or = 140 mmHg systolic and 90 mmHg diastolic. Patients with a total cholesterol of < or = 6.5 mmol/l were further randomized to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg or placebo daily. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD). RESULTS: 19 342 men and women were initially randomized, of these 10297 were also randomized into the lipid-lowering limb. All patients had three or more additional cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study has 80% power (at the 5% level) to detect a relative difference of 20% in CHD endpoints between the calcium channel blocker-based regimen and the beta-blocker-based regimen. The lipid-lowering limb of the study has 90% power at the 1% level to detect a relative difference of 30% in CHD endpoints between groups.