This chapter aims to introduce various stages of the epidemiological research process with illustrative examples from the neurological literature. We begin by introducing some fundamental statistical concepts including sampling schemes, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and sample size estimation. Different epidemiological study designs with their corresponding strengths and weaknesses and the main measures of effect are then discussed. Some common and more advanced statistical tests are then introduced along with the role of correlation and regression in epidemiology. Finally, the interpretation of the results of individual studies and metaanalyses of such studies, for different study designs are discussed. © 2007 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.


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