Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

As ways of discouraging tobacco consumption, the effects of increases in price and in quantitative information may have been under-emphasized. To decrease the hazards of tobacco, switches from cigarettes to pipes, cigars or 'smokeless' tobacco may be useful, as may a reduction in cigarette tar delivery. Indeed, the spread of existing tar level reductions from capitalist to socialist countries might prevent tens of thousands of lung cancer deaths each year in the early decades of the next century, and (perhaps by attempts to engineer cigarettes so that smokers of lower tar cigarettes are less likely to 'compensate' by taking more smoke) it should eventually also be possible to change cigarettes so as also to reduce their effects on heart and lung disease. Changes in consumption and in composition of tobacco products are complementary, not competing, strategies. If both are pursued effectively, then although the life expectancy of old people may not be much improved, the proportion of adults who die before reaching old age will decrease substantially.

Original publication




Journal article


Ciba Found Symp

Publication Date





126 - 142


Adult, Aged, England, Europe, Female, Heart Diseases, Humans, Lung Diseases, Obstructive, Lung Neoplasms, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, Smoking Prevention, United States