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A death certificate-based case-control study was conducted on 207 women aged 25-44 who died of bladder cancer in England and Wales in the period 1971-89 and 411 controls matched on sex, year of death and age at death. An odds ratio of 12.0 (95% CI 1.5-99.7) was found for women with a history of paraplegia. Four of the six paraplegic women were reported to have had squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder compared with only 19 of the 201 non-paraplegic women. These findings suggest that squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder, especially in paraplegics, may be the result of chronic urinary tract infection.

Original publication




Journal article


Br J Cancer

Publication Date





167 - 168


Adult, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Case-Control Studies, Confidence Intervals, Death Certificates, England, Female, Humans, Matched-Pair Analysis, Odds Ratio, Paraplegia, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms, Urinary Tract Infections, Wales