Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: Exogenous tracer-based methods of measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are difficult to perform, whilst creatinine-based estimation formulae are inaccurate. METHODS: We assessed a new technique of measuring iohexol clearance using timed dried capillary blood spots. A reference GFR was measured in 81 subjects (GFR 15-124 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) by iohexol clearance using three venous samples (2, 3 and 4 h after an intravenous bolus). GFR was estimated by six test methods; iohexol clearance using (i) 3 blood spots (2, 3, 4 h); (ii) 2 blood spots (2, 4 h) and (iii) 1 blood spot (4 h); (iv) the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula; (v) the Cockcroft-Gault formula, and (vi) a formula estimating GFR from serum cystatin C concentration. For each test method the bias and precision were calculated as the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the 'GFR differences' (test method GFR - reference GFR). RESULTS: The limits of agreement (bias +/-1.96 x SD; in ml/min/1.73 m(2)) were: (i) 1.1 +/- 15.1 for 3-spot iohexol clearance; (ii) 0.6 +/- 14.9 for 2-spot iohexol clearance; (iii) 4.5 +/- 21.2 for 1-spot iohexol clearance; (iv) -15.7 +/- 33.3 for the MDRD formula; (v) -9.6 +/- 32.9 for the Cockcroft-Gault formula, and (vi) -12.1 +/- 31.7 for the Cystatin C formula. The accuracy of all six test methods was similar among individuals with GFR <60 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2); however, in individuals with GFR > or =60 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2), the MDRD, Cockcroft-Gault and Cystatin C formulae were all imprecise and systematically underestimated GFR. CONCLUSIONS: Blood spot iohexol clearance provides a potentially practical method of estimating GFR accurately in large-scale epidemiological studies especially among individuals without established chronic kidney disease.

Original publication




Journal article


Nephron Clin Pract

Publication Date





c104 - c112


Adult, Capillaries, Creatinine, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Humans, Iohexol, Kidney Diseases, Male, Metabolic Clearance Rate, Middle Aged, Reference Values, Sensitivity and Specificity