Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Jehovah's Witnesses do not permit the use of allogeneic blood products. An increasing number of patients are refusing blood transfusion for non-religious reasons. In addition, blood stores are decreasing, and costs are increasing. Transfusion avoidance strategies are, therefore, desirable. Bloodless surgery refers to the co-ordinated peri-operative care of patients aiming to avoid blood transfusion, and improve patient outcomes. These principles are likely to gain popularity, and become standard practice for all patients. This review offers a practical approach to the surgical management of Jehovah's Witnesses, and an introduction to the principles of bloodless surgery that can be applied to the management of all patients.

Original publication




Journal article


Ann R Coll Surg Engl

Publication Date





3 - 14


Advance Directives, Blood Loss, Surgical, Blood Transfusion, Hematopoiesis, Hemodilution, Humans, Informed Consent, Intraoperative Care, Jehovah's Witnesses, Surgical Procedures, Operative, Treatment Refusal