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BACKGROUND: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) consistently improve heart failure and kidney-related outcomes; however, effects on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) across different patient populations are less clear. METHODS: This was a collaborative trial-level meta-analysis from the SGLT2i meta-analysis cardio-renal trialists consortium, which includes all phase 3, placebo-controlled, outcomes trials of SGLT2i across three patient populations (diabetes at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD], heart failure [HF], or chronic kidney disease [CKD]). The outcomes of interest were MACE (composite of CV death, myocardial infarction [MI], or stroke), individual components of MACE (inclusive of fatal and non-fatal events), all-cause mortality, and death subtypes. Effect estimates for SGLT2i vs. placebo were meta-analyzed across trials and examined across key subgroups (established ASCVD, prior MI, diabetes, prior HF, albuminuria, CKD stages and risk groups). RESULTS: A total of 78,607 patients across 11 trials were included: 42,568 (54.2%), 20,725 (26.4%), and 15,314 (19.5%) were included from trials of patients with diabetes at high risk for ASCVD, HF, or CKD, respectively. SGLT2i reduced the rate of MACE by 9% (HR 0.91 [95% CI 0.87-0.96], p<0.0001) with a consistent effect across all three patient populations (I2=0%) and across all key subgroups. This effect was primarily driven by a reduction in CV death (HR 0.86 [0.81-0.92], p<0.0001), with no significant effect for MI in the overall population (HR 0.95 [0.87-1.04], p=0.29), and no effect on stroke (HR 0.99 [0.91-1.07], p=0.77). The benefit for CV death was driven primarily by reductions in HF death and sudden cardiac death (HR 0.68 [0.46-1.02] and HR 0.86 [0.78-0.95], respectively) and was generally consistent across subgroups, with the possible exception of being more apparent in those with albuminuria (Pint=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: SGLT2i reduce the risk of MACE across a broad range of patients irrespective of ASCVD, diabetes, kidney function or other major clinical characteristics at baseline. This effect is driven primarily by a reduction of CV death, particularly HF and sudden cardiac death, without a significant effect on MI in the overall population, and no effect on stroke. These data may help inform selection for SGLT2i therapies across the spectrum of cardiovascular-kidney-metabolic disease.

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