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Background: Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A is an important public health problem, especially in low-income and middle-income countries with limited access to safe water and sanitation. We present results from, to our knowledge, the first ever human study of a bivalent paratyphoid A-typhoid conjugate vaccine (Sii-PTCV). Methods: In this double-blind phase 1 study, 60 healthy Indian adults were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a single intramuscular dose of either Sii-PTCV or typhoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV). Safety was assessed by observing solicited adverse events for 1 week, unsolicited events for 1 month, and serious adverse events (SAEs) over 6 months. Immunogenicity at 1 month and 6 months was assessed by measuring anti-capsular polysaccharide antigen Vi (anti-Vi) IgG and IgA against Salmonella Typhi and anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) IgG against Salmonella Paratyphi A by ELISA, and functional antibodies using serum bactericidal assay (SBA) against Salmonella Paratyphi A. This study is registered with Clinical Trial Registry–India (CTRI/2022/06/043608) and is completed. Findings: 60 participants were enrolled. Of these 60 participants, 57 (95%) participants were male and three (5%) participants were female. Solicited adverse events were observed in 27 (90%) of 30 participants who received Sii-PTCV and 26 (87%) of 30 participants who received Typbar-TCV. The most common local solicited event was pain in 27 (90%) participants who received Sii-PTCV and in 23 (77%) participants who received Typbar-TCV. The most common solicited systemic event was myalgia in five (17%) participants who received Sii-PTCV, whereas four (13%) participants who received Typbar-TCV had myalgia and four (13%) had headache. No vaccine-related unsolicited adverse events or SAEs were reported. The seroconversion rates on day 29 were 96·7% (95% CI 82·8–99·9) with Sii-PTCV and 100·0% (88·4–100·0) with Typbar-TCV for anti-Vi IgG; 93·3% (77·9–99·2) with Sii-PTCV and 100·0% (88·4–100·0) with Typbar-TCV for anti-Vi IgA; 100·0% (88·4–100·0) with Sii-PTCV and 3·3% (0·1–17·2) with Typbar-TCV for anti-LPS (paratyphoid); and 93·3% (77·9–99·2) with Sii-PTCV and 0% (0·0–11·6) with Typbar-TCV for SBA titres (paratyphoid). Paratyphoid anti-LPS immune responses were sustained at day 181. Interpretation: Sii-PTCV was safe and immunogenic for both typhoid and paratyphoid antigens indicating its potential for providing comprehensive protection against enteric fever. Funding: Serum Institute of India.

Original publication




Journal article


The Lancet

Publication Date