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INTRODUCTION: Cohort evidence of the association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. Previous studies often describe patients with kidney disease and diabetes as diabetic kidney disease (DKD) or CKD, ignoring other subtypes. The present study aimed to assess the prospective association of diabetes status (no diabetes, pre-diabetes, screened diabetes, previously diagnosed controlled/uncontrolled diabetes with/without antidiabetic treatment) and random plasma glucose (RPG) with CKD risk (including CKD subtypes) among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The present study included 472 545 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank, using baseline information on diabetes and RPG. The incident CKD and its subtypes were collected through linkage with the national health insurance system during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to calculate the HR and 95% CI. RESULTS: During 11.8 years of mean follow-up, 5417 adults developed CKD. Screened plus previously diagnosed diabetes was positively associated with CKD (HR=4.52, 95% CI 4.23 to 4.83), DKD (HR=33.85, 95% CI 29.56 to 38.76), and glomerulonephritis (HR=1.66, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.97). In those with previously diagnosed diabetes, participants with uncontrolled diabetes represented higher risks of CKD, DKD, and glomerulonephritis compared with those with controlled RPG. The risk of DKD was found to rise in participants with pre-diabetes and increased with the elevated RPG level, even in those without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, diabetes was positively associated with CKD, DKD, and glomerulonephritis. Screen-detected and uncontrolled DM had a high risk of CKD, and pre-diabetes was associated with a greater risk of DKD, highlighting the significance of lifelong glycemic management.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care

Publication Date





Chronic Kidney Disease, Cohort Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Adult, Humans, Prediabetic State, Cohort Studies, Diabetic Nephropathies, China, Glomerulonephritis, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic