Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Precision medicine depends on high-accuracy individual-level genotype data. However, the whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is still not suitable for gigantic studies due to budget constraints. It is particularly important to construct highly accurate haplotype reference panel for genotype imputation. In this study, we used 10 000 samples with medium-depth WGS to construct a reference panel that we named the CKB reference panel. By imputing microarray datasets, it showed that the CKB panel outperformed compared panels in terms of both the number of well-imputed variants and imputation accuracy. In addition, we have completed the imputation of 100 706 microarrays with the CKB panel, and the after-imputed data is the hitherto largest whole genome data of the Chinese population. Furthermore, in the GWAS analysis of real phenotype height, the number of tested SNPs tripled and the number of significant SNPs doubled after imputation. Finally, we developed an online server for offering free genotype imputation service based on the CKB reference panel ( We believe that the CKB panel is of great value for imputing microarray or low-coverage genotype data of Chinese population, and potentially mixed populations. The imputation-completed 100 706 microarray data are enormous and precious resources of population genetic studies for complex traits and diseases.

Original publication




Journal article


Nucleic Acids Res

Publication Date





11770 - 11782


Humans, Haplotypes, Biological Specimen Banks, Genotype, Genome, Genome-Wide Association Study, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, China