Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Importance: The Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)-Associated Stroke Causal Likelihood classification system combines information regarding noncardiac patient features (vascular risk factors, infarct topography) and PFO features (shunt size and presence of atrial septal aneurysm [ASA]) to classify patients into 3 validated categories of responsiveness to treatment with PFO closure. However, the distinctive associations of shunt size and ASA, alone and in combination, have not been completely delineated. Objective: To evaluate the association of PFO closure with stroke recurrence according to shunt size and/or the presence of an ASA. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pooled individual patient data from 6 randomized clinical trials conducted from February 2000 to October 2017 that compared PFO closure with medical therapy. Patients in North America, Europe, Australia, Brazil, and South Korea with PFO-associated stroke were included. Analysis was completed in January 2022. Exposures: Transcatheter PFO closure plus antithrombotic therapy vs antithrombotic therapy alone, stratified into 4 groups based on the combination of 2 features: small vs large PFO shunt size and the presence or absence of an ASA. Main Outcomes and Measures: Recurrent ischemic stroke. Results: A total of 121 recurrent ischemic strokes occurred in the pooled 3740 patients (mean [SD] age, 45 [10] years; 1682 [45%] female) during a median (IQR) follow-up of 57 (23.7-63.8) months. Treatment with PFO closure was associated with reduced risk for recurrent ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41 [95% CI, 0.28-0.60]; P 

Original publication




Journal article


JAMA Neurol

Publication Date