Coronary evaginations are associated with positive vessel remodelling and are nearly absent following implantation of newer-generation drug-eluting stents: an optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound study.
Radu MD., Räber L., Kalesan B., Muramatsu T., Kelbæk H., Heo J., Jørgensen E., Helqvist S., Farooq V., Brugaletta S., Garcia-Garcia HM., Jüni P., Saunamäki K., Windecker S., Serruys PW.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence, predictors, and mechanisms of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-detected coronary evaginations following drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. BACKGROUND: Angiographic ectasias and aneurysms in stented segments have been associated with a risk of late stent thrombosis. Using OCT, some stented segments show coronary evaginations reminiscent of ectasias. METHODS: Evaginations were defined as outward bulges in the luminal contour between struts. They were considered major evaginations (MEs) when extending ≥3 mm along the vessel length, with a depth ≥10% of the stent diameter. A total of 228 patients who had sirolimus (SES)-, paclitaxel-, biolimus-, everolimus (EES)-, or zotarolimus (ZES)-eluting stents implanted in 254 lesions, were analysed after 1, 2, or 5 years; and serial assessment using OCT and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed post-intervention and after 1 year in 42 patients. RESULTS: Major evaginations occurred frequently at all time points in SES (∼26%) and were rarely seen in EES (3%) and ZES (2%, P = 0.003). Sirolimus-eluting stent implantation was the strongest independent predictor of ME [adjusted OR (95% CI) 9.1 (1.1-77.4), P = 0.008]. Malapposed and uncovered struts were more common in lesions with vs. without ME (77 vs. 25%, P < 0.001 and 95 vs. 20%, P < 0.001, respectively) as was thrombus [49 vs. 14%, OR 7.3 (95% CI: 1.7-31.2), P = 0.007]. Post-intervention intra-stent dissection and protrusion of the vessel wall into the lumen were associated with an increased risk of evagination at follow-up [OR (95% CI): 2.9 (1.8-4.9), P < 0.001 and 3.3 (1.6-6.9), P = 0.001, respectively]. In paired IVUS analyses, lesions with ME showed a larger increase in the external elastic membrane area (20% area change) compared with lesions without ME (5% area change, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Optical coherence tomography-detected MEs are a specific morphological footprint of early-generation SES and are nearly absent in newer-generation ZES and EES. Evaginations appear to be related to vessel injury at baseline; are associated with positive vessel remodelling; and correlate with uncoverage, malapposition, and thrombus at follow-up.