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AIMS: We aimed to identify a novel biomarker involved in the early events leading to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and evaluate its role in diagnosis and risk stratification. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biomarker identification was based on gene expression profiling. In coronary thrombi of ACS patients, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61, CCN1) gene transcripts were highly up-regulated compared with peripheral mononuclear cells. In a murine ischaemia-reperfusion model (I/R), myocardial Cyr61 expression was markedly increased compared with the controls. Cyr61 levels were determined in human serum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cohorts of ACS (n = 2168) referred for coronary angiography, stable coronary artery disease (CAD) (n = 53), and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) patients (n = 15) served to identify and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic performance of the biomarker. Cyr61 was markedly elevated in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients compared with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina or stable CAD patients, irrespective of whether coronary thrombi were present. Cyr61 was rapidly released after occlusion of a septal branch in HOCM patients undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy. Cyr61 improved risk stratification for all-cause mortality when added to the reference GRACE risk score at 30 days (C-statistic 0.88 to 0.89, P = 0.001) and 1 year (C-statistic 0.77 to 0.80, P 

Original publication




Journal article


Eur Heart J

Publication Date





3493 - 3502


Acute coronary syndromes, Biomarker, Risk stratification, Acute Coronary Syndrome, Biomarkers, Case-Control Studies, Coronary Artery Disease, Coronary Thrombosis, Cysteine-Rich Protein 61, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Myocardial Infarction, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Risk Assessment