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Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing global health problem, but little is known about the age- and sex-specific prevalence of CKD and the associated risk factors in low- and middle-income populations. We examined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of CKD and the associated risk factors in a population-based study of 9 million Chinese adults. Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 9 461 631 adults, >18 years of age, who were recruited in 2017 from 31 provinces in the Meinian Onehealth screening survey. All participants had plasma creatinine measured by standard methods and CKD was defined if the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results: Overall, among 9.5 million adults [mean age 41 years (standard deviation 13.1)], 88 271 (1.26%) had CKD. The prevalence rate of CKD was 1.20%, 0.04% and 0.02% for stage 3, 4 and 5, respectively. After adjustment for the proportion and prevalence of urban and rural areas, the overall prevalence rate of CKD was 1.07%, indicating that ∼14 million Chinese adults have CKD. The prevalence of CKD increased 3-fold for each 10-year increment in age (1.15%, 3.05% and 13.02% at age 50-59, 60-69 and >70 years, respectively) and was 1.8-fold higher in women than men. The prevalence of CKD was higher in the Southwest region {1.68% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.24]} but lower in the Northwest region [0.84% (95% CI 0.61-1.07)] than other regions. If proteinuria is also used as a diagnostic criterion, the prevalence rate increased to 2.16%. Stepwise logistic regression analysis demonstrated that body mass index; history of hypertension, cardiovascular disease or diabetes; and levels of systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and uric acid were independent risk factors for CKD. Conclusion: CKD is an important public health problem in Chinese adults and this study highlights the need for public health strategies to detect and reduce modifiable risk factors for prevention of CKD.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Kidney J

Publication Date





2228 - 2236


chronic kidney disease, cross-sectional study, prevalence, public health, risk factor