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BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious global public health problem. We aimed to quantify the risk of AKI associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]), age, sex, and race (African American and white). STUDY DESIGN: Collaborative meta-analysis. SETTING & POPULATION: 8 general-population cohorts (1,285,049 participants) and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohorts (79,519 participants). SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: Available eGFR, ACR, and 50 or more AKI events. PREDICTORS: Age, sex, race, eGFR, urine ACR, and interactions. OUTCOME: Hospitalized with or for AKI, using Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs of AKI and random-effects meta-analysis to pool results. RESULTS: 16,480 (1.3%) general-population cohort participants had AKI over a mean follow-up of 4 years; 2,087 (2.6%) CKD participants had AKI over a mean follow-up of 1 year. Lower eGFR and higher ACR were strongly associated with AKI. Compared with eGFR of 80mL/min/1.73m(2), the adjusted HR of AKI at eGFR of 45mL/min/1.73m(2) was 3.35 (95% CI, 2.75-4.07). Compared with ACR of 5mg/g, the risk of AKI at ACR of 300mg/g was 2.73 (95% CI, 2.18-3.43). Older age was associated with higher risk of AKI, but this effect was attenuated with lower eGFR or higher ACR. Male sex was associated with higher risk of AKI, with a slight attenuation in lower eGFR but not in higher ACR. African Americans had higher AKI risk at higher levels of eGFR and most levels of ACR. LIMITATIONS: Only 2 general-population cohorts could contribute to analyses by race; AKI identified by diagnostic code. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced eGFR and increased ACR are consistent strong risk factors for AKI, whereas associations of AKI with age, sex, and race may be weaker in more advanced stages of CKD.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Kidney Dis

Publication Date





591 - 601


Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium, Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), acute kidney injury (AKI), acute renal failure (ARF), age, albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), albuminuria, meta-analysis, proteinuria, race/ethnicity, renal function, sex, Acute Kidney Injury, Adolescent, Adult, African Americans, Age Distribution, Aged, Albuminuria, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Humans, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Predictive Value of Tests, Prognosis, Racial Groups, Severity of Illness Index, Sex Distribution, Whites, Young Adult