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In the last decades, the substantial technical progress in radiation oncology offered the opportunity for more accurate planning and delivery of treatment. At the same time, the evolution of systemic treatment and the advent of modern diagnostic tools allowed for more accurate staging and consequently a safe reduction of radiotherapy (RT) target volumes and RT doses in the treatment of lymphomas. As a result, incidental irradiation of organs at risk was reduced, with a consequent reduction of severe late toxicity in long-term lymphoma survivors. Nevertheless, these innovations warrant that professionals pay attention to concurrently ensure precise planning and dose delivery to the target volume and safe sparing of the organs at risk. In particular, target and organ motion should be carefully managed in order to prevent any compromise of treatment efficacy. Several aspects should be taken into account during the treatment pathway to minimise uncertainties and to apply a valuable motion management strategy, when needed. These include: reliable image registration between diagnostic and planning radiologic exams to facilitate the contouring process, image guidance to limit positioning uncertainties and to ensure the accuracy of dose delivery and management of lung motion through procedures of respiratory gating and breath control. In this review, we will cover the current clinical approaches to minimise these uncertainties in patients treated with modern RT techniques, with a particular focus on mediastinal lymphoma. In addition, since uncertainties have a different impact on the dose deposition of protons compared to conventional x-rays, the role of motion management and position verification in proton beam therapy (PBT) will be discussed in a separate section.

Original publication




Journal article


The British journal of radiology

Publication Date





Division of Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.