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BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term risks of stroke and ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women who had a hysterectomy alone (HA) or with bilateral oophorectomy (HBO) for benign diseases, particularly in China where the burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is high. We assessed mean levels of cardiovascular risk factors and relative risks of stroke and IHD in Chinese women who had a HA or HBO. METHODS: A total of 302 510 women, aged 30 to 79 years were enrolled in the China Kadoorie Biobank from 2004 to 2008 and followed up for a mean of 9.8 years. The analysis involved premenopausal women without prior cardiovascular disease or cancer at enrollment. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios for incident cases of CVD and their pathological types (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and IHD) after HA and HBO. Analyses were stratified by age and region and adjusted for levels of education, household income, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, self-reported health, and number of pregnancies. RESULTS: Among 282 722 eligible women, 8478 had HA, and 1360 had HBO. Women who had HA had 9% higher risk of CVD after HA (hazard ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.06-1.12]) and 19% higher risk of CVD after HBO (1.19 [95% CI, 1.12-1.26]) compared with women who did not. Both HA and HBO were associated with higher risks of ischemic stroke and IHD but not with hemorrhagic stroke. The relative risks of CVD associated with HA and HBO were more extreme at younger age of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Women who had either HA or HBO have higher risks of ischemic stroke and IHD, and these risks should be evaluated when discussing these interventions. Additional screening for risk factors for CVD should be considered in women following HA and HBO operations, especially if such operations are performed at younger age.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





3064 - 3071


cardiovascular disease, china, heart disease, hysterectomy, women, Cardiovascular Diseases, China, Female, Hemorrhagic Stroke, Humans, Hysterectomy, Ischemic Stroke, Myocardial Ischemia, Ovariectomy, Risk Factors, Stroke