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PURPOSE: Comorbidities making up metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular disease can lead to increased risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with a higher morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher in severely or critically ill COVID-19 patients, but studies have not focused on levels in convalescent patients with MetS, which this study aimed to assess. METHODS: This retrospective study focused on adult convalescent outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 positive serology during the COVID-19 pandemic at NewYork Presbyterian/Weill Cornell. Data collected for descriptive and correlative analysis included SARS-COV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) levels and history of MetS comorbidities from April 17, 2020 to May 20, 2020. Additional data, including SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipid levels were collected and analyzed for a second cohort from May 21, 2020 to June 21, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were measured in a subset of the study cohort. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in convalescent individuals with MetS comorbidities. When adjusted for age, sex, race, and time duration from symptom onset to testing, increased SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels remained significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% compared to those with HbA1c <5.7% (P = 0.0197) and remained significant on multivariable analysis (P = 0.0104). A positive correlation was noted between BMI and antibody levels [95% confidence interval: 0.37 (0.20-0.52) P < 0.0001]. Neutralizing antibody titers were higher in COVID-19 individuals with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.0055). CONCLUSION: Postconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibodies are elevated in obese patients, and a positive correlation exists between BMI and antibody levels.

Original publication




Journal article


J Clin Endocrinol Metab

Publication Date





e2025 - e2034


COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, antibody, diabetes, obesity, Adult, Antibodies, Neutralizing, COVID-19, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Female, Humans, Immunoglobulin G, Male, Metabolic Syndrome, Middle Aged, Obesity, Retrospective Studies