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Background This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in reducing the incidence of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods and Results We conducted a Bayesian meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors with placebo. We used meta-regression to examine the association between treatment effects and control group event rates as measures of cardiovascular baseline risk. Fifty-three randomized controlled trials were included in our synthesis. Empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin reduced the incidence of all-cause mortality (empagliflozin: rate ratio [RR], 0.79; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 0.63-0.97; canagliflozin: RR, 0.86; 95% CrI, 0.69-1.05; dapagliflozin: RR, 0.86; 95% CrI, 0.72-1.01) and cardiovascular mortality (empagliflozin: RR, 0.78; 95% CrI, 0.61-1.00; canagliflozin: RR, 0.83; 95% CrI, 0.63-1.05; dapagliflozin: RR, 0.88; 95% CrI, 0.71-1.08), with a 90.1% to 98.7% probability for the true RR to be <1.00 for both outcomes. There was little evidence for ertugliflozin and sotagliflozin versus placebo for reducing all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. There was no association between treatment effects for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and the control group event rates. There was evidence for a reduction in the incidence of heart failure for empagliflozin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and ertugliflozin versus placebo (probability RR <1.00 of ≥99.3%) and weaker, albeit positive, evidence for acute myocardial infarction for the first 3 agents (probability RR <1.00 of 89.0%-95.2%). There was little evidence of any agent except canagliflozin for reducing the incidence of stroke. Conclusions Empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin reduced the incidence of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality versus placebo. Treatment effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors versus placebo do not vary by baseline risk.

Original publication




Journal article


J Am Heart Assoc

Publication Date





heart failure, ischemic stroke, meta‐analysis, myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes, Bayes Theorem, Canagliflozin, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Glucose, Humans, Sodium, Stroke