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Objective: To describe the regional and demographic differences on passive non-smokers from 10 regions involved in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study. Methods: Detailed information regarding passive smoking behaviors related to 317 486 non-smokers who were 30-79 years old from the 10 study regions were gathered and analyzed. Results: Following the standardization of the 2010 China national population, the prevalence rate of passive smoking was 56.7%, and the prevalence rate of living with smokers was 66.5% among the Chinese adults. Both of the aforementioned rates were higher in rural than in urban areas. Meanwhile, the regional distribution of weekly passive smoking frequency and cumulative duration of passive smoking per week and cumulative duration of passive smoking per day were significantly different. The cumulative passive smoking duration per week increased along with the weekly frequency in people living in urban areas. Among women, the weekly passive smoking frequency was the highest, and the cumulative durations per week and per day appeared the lowest in Hunan, opposite to the situation in Henan. The prevalence of passive smoking among participants living with smokers was 2.27 times (95%CI: 2.24-2.29) of those who were not and the association appeared stronger in women (OR=2.61, 95%CI: 2.58-2.64) but not in men (OR=1.01, 95%CI: 0.95-1.06). Almost all the indicators seemed higher in women than those in men, except for the cumulative duration per day. Furthermore, these indicators appeared higher among those who were at younger age or with less education. The prevalence rates of passive smoking and living with smokers were lower but the cumulative duration per day was higher among those with lower household income. And the two rates were higher in married women and lower in married men, as compared to their counterparts. Conclusion: Regional and demographic differences in passive smoking were noticed among study population of CKB in the 10 regions.

Original publication




Journal article


Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi

Publication Date





1668 - 1673


Living with smokers, Passive smoking, Population differences, Regional differences, Adult, Aged, China, Female, Health Status Disparities, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Non-Smokers, Prevalence, Tobacco Smoke Pollution