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  • High-throughput DNA sequencing identifies novel CtIP (RBBP8) variants in muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients

    9 August 2018

    © 2015 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved Background: Germline mutations in DNA damage signalling and repair genes predispose individuals to cancer. Rare germline variants may also increase cancer risk and be predictive of outcomes following cancer treatments, but require high-throughput sequencing (HTS) for detection in large cohorts. Objective: To use a dual indexing system on a HTS platform to detect novel variants in CtIP (RBBP8) which may be associated with clinical outcomes following radiotherapy treatment for bladder cancer. Methods: All exons and flanking introns of CtIP were amplified from germline DNA from bladder cancer patients using seven primer pairs by automated long-range PCR. Amplicons were pooled, fragmented and ligated to adaptor sequences. One of 96 tag sequences was introduced at each end by PCR. Sequencing was performed on a single flow cell of an Illumina MiSeq. Reads were mapped by Stampy and variants called by Platypus. For phasing experiments, target regions were amplified and cloned for Sanger sequencing. Results: Of 201 samples, 160 were successfully amplified. Eleven CtIP variants were called, within the exons and 15 bp adjacent intronic DNA, including eight known variants from the 1000 Genomes project, plus three previously unreported variants now confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In two individuals, phasing experiments showed two variants of interest to be on separate alleles, likely to result in stronger impairment of gene function. Conclusions: We have demonstrated proof of principle for dual indexing on 160 samples on one MiSeq flow cell sequencing surface, and show that for the CtIP gene multiplexing of up to 720 samples would provide sufficient coverage to achieve >98% detection power for rare germline variation, reducing HTS costs substantially.

  • Sleep Phase Delay in Cystic Fibrosis: A Potential New Manifestation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Dysfunction.

    3 July 2018

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein dysfunction causes CF. Improving survival allows detection of increasingly subtle disease manifestations. CFTR dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) may disturb circadian rhythm and thus sleep phase. We studied sleep in adults to better understand potential CNS CFTR dysfunction. METHODS: We recruited participants from April 2012 through April 2015 and administered the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). We compared free-day sleep measurements between CF and non-CF participants and investigated associations with CF survival predictors. RESULTS: We recruited 23 female and 22 male adults with CF aged 18 to 46 years and 26 female and 22 male volunteers aged 18 to 45 years. Compared with volunteers without CF, patients with CF had delayed sleep onset (0.612 h; P = .015), midsleep (1.11 h; P < .001), and wake (1.15 h; P < .001) times and prolonged sleep latency (7.21 min; P = .05) and duration (0.489 h; P = .05). Every hour delay in sleep onset was associated with shorter sleep duration by 0.29 h in patients with CF and 0.75 h in subjects without CF (P = .007) and longer sleep latency by 7.51 min in patients with CF and 1.6 min in volunteers without CF (P = .035). Among patients with CF, FEV1 % predicted, prior acute pulmonary exacerbations, and weight were independent of all free-day sleep measurements. CONCLUSIONS: CF in adults is associated with marked delays in sleep phase consistent with circadian rhythm phase delays. Independence from disease characteristics predictive of survival suggests that sleep phase delay is a primary manifestation of CFTR dysfunction in the CNS.

  • Absorbed dose evaluation of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides: impact of input decay spectra on dose point kernels and S-values.

    2 July 2018

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decay data provided by the newly developed stochastic atomic relaxation model BrIccEmis on dose point kernels (DPKs - radial dose distribution around a unit point source) and S-values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) of 14 Auger electron (AE) emitting radionuclides, namely 67Ga, 80mBr, 89Zr, 90Nb, 99mTc, 111In, 117mSn, 119Sb, 123I, 124I, 125I, 135La, 195mPt and 201Tl. Radiation spectra were based on the nuclear decay data from the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) RADTABS program and the BrIccEmis code, assuming both an isolated-atom and condensed-phase approach. DPKs were simulated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) code using event-by-event electron and photon transport. S-values for concentric spherical cells of various sizes were derived from these DPKs using appropriate geometric reduction factors. The number of Auger and Coster-Kronig (CK) electrons and x-ray photons released per nuclear decay (yield) from MIRD-RADTABS were consistently higher than those calculated using BrIccEmis. DPKs for the electron spectra from BrIccEmis were considerably different from MIRD-RADTABS in the first few hundred nanometres from a point source where most of the Auger electrons are stopped. S-values were, however, not significantly impacted as the differences in DPKs in the sub-micrometre dimension were quickly diminished in larger dimensions. Overestimation in the total AE energy output by MIRD-RADTABS leads to higher predicted energy deposition by AE emitting radionuclides, especially in the immediate vicinity of the decaying radionuclides. This should be taken into account when MIRD-RADTABS data are used to simulate biological damage at nanoscale dimensions.