• Clinical features and risk factors for post-partum depression in a large cohort of Chinese women with recurrent major depressive disorder.

    6 December 2017

    BACKGROUND: Post partum depression (PPD) is relatively common in China but its clinical characteristics and risk factors have not been studied. We set out to investigate whether known risk factors for PPD could be found in Chinese women. METHODS: A case control design was used to determine the impact of known risk factors for PPD in a cohort of 1970 Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). In a within-case design we examined the risk factors for PPD in patients with recurrent MDD. We compared the clinical features of MDD in cases with PPD to those without MDD. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic and ordinal regression. RESULTS: Lower occupational and educational statuses increased the risk of PPD, as did a history of pre-menstrual symptoms, stressful life events and elevated levels of the personality trait of neuroticism. Patients with PPD and MDD were more likely to experience a comorbid anxiety disorder, had a younger age of onset of MDD, have higher levels of neuroticism and dysthymia. LIMITATIONS: Results obtained in this clinical sample may not be applicable to PPD within the community. Data were obtained retrospectively and we do not know whether the correlations we observe have the same causes as those operating in other populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the despite cultural differences between Chinese and Western women, the phenomenology and risk factors for PPD are very similar.

  • The impact of educational status on the clinical features of major depressive disorder among Chinese women.

    16 January 2018

    BACKGROUND: Years of education are inversely related to the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), but the relationship between the clinical features of MDD and educational status is poorly understood. We investigated this in 1970 Chinese women with recurrent MDD identified in a clinical setting. METHODS: Clinical and demographic features were obtained from 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depression between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between educational level and clinical features of MDD. RESULTS: Subjects with more years of education are more likely to have MDD, with an odds ratio of 1.14 for those with more than ten years. Low educational status is not associated with an increase in the number of episodes, nor with increased rates of co-morbidity with anxiety disorders. Education impacts differentially on the symptoms of depression: lower educational attainment is associated with more biological symptoms and increased suicidal ideation and plans to commit suicide. LIMITATIONS: Findings may not generalize to males or to other patient populations. Since the threshold for treatment seeking differs as a function of education there may an ascertainment bias in the sample. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between symptoms of MDD and educational status in Chinese women is unexpectedly complex. Our findings are inconsistent with the simple hypothesis from European and US reports that low levels of educational attainment increase the risk and severity of MDD.

  • Exposure of the lungs in breast cancer radiotherapy: A systematic review of lung doses published 2010-2015.

    9 January 2018

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report a systematic review of lung radiation doses from breast cancer radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Studies describing breast cancer radiotherapy regimens published during 2010-2015 and reporting lung dose were included. Doses were compared between different countries, anatomical regions irradiated, techniques and use of breathing adaptation. RESULTS: 471 regimens from 32 countries were identified. The average mean ipsilateral lung dose (MLDipsi) was 9.0 Gy. MLDipsi for supine radiotherapy with no breathing adaption was 8.4 Gy for whole breast/chest wall (WB/CW) radiotherapy, 11.2 Gy when the axilla/supraclavicular fossa was irradiated, and 14.0 Gy with the addition of internal mammary chain irradiation; breathing adaptation reduced MLDipsi by 1 Gy, 2 Gy and 3 Gy respectively (p < 0.005). For WB/CW radiotherapy, MLDipsi was lowest for tangents in prone (1.2 Gy) or lateral decubitus (0.8 Gy) positions. The highest MLDipsi was for IMRT in supine position (9.4 Gy). The average mean contralateral lung dose (MLDcont) for WB/CW radiotherapy was higher for IMRT (3.0 Gy) than for tangents (0.8 Gy). CONCLUSIONS: Lung doses from breast cancer radiotherapy varied substantially worldwide, even between studies describing similar regimens. Lymph node inclusion and IMRT use increased exposure, while breathing adaptation and prone/lateral decubitus positioning reduced it.

  • Clinicodemographic Profile of Children with Seizures in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    25 December 2017

    Seizures are one of the common causes for hospital admissions in children with significant mortality and morbidity. This study was conducted to study the prevalence and clinicodemographic profile of children with seizures in a tertiary care hospital of western Nepal. This prospective cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years included all admitted children (2 months-16 years) with seizures. Among 4962 admitted children, seizures were present in 3.4% (n = 168) of children, with male preponderance. 138 (82.1%) children had generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and 30 (17.9%) children had partial seizures. GTCS were more common than partial seizures in both sexes (male = 82.7%; female = 81.2%) and age groups. There was no statistical significance in the distribution of seizures (GTCS and partial seizures) with sexes (P = 0.813) and age groups (P = 0.955). Mean ages of children having GTCS and partial seizures were 8.2 ± 4.6 years and 8.2 ± 4.2 years, respectively. Loss of consciousness (55.4%), fever (39.9%), vomiting (35.1%), and headache (16.1%) were common complaints in seizure patients. Significant number of GTCS cases had fever (P = 0.041) and neurocysticercosis (n = 72; 43%) was the most common etiology in seizure patients. Idiopathic epilepsy (38 (22.6%)), meningoencephalitis (26 (15.5%)), and febrile convulsions (14 (8.33%)) were other leading disorders in children with seizures.

  • Association of Body Mass Index With Cardiometabolic Disease in the UK Biobank: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    9 January 2018

    Importance: Higher body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease; however, the underlying causal associations remain unclear. Objectives: To use UK Biobank data to report causal estimates of the association between BMI and cardiometabolic disease outcomes and traits, such as pulse rate, using mendelian randomization. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional baseline data from a population-based cohort study including 119 859 UK Biobank participants with complete phenotypic (medical and sociodemographic) and genetic data. Participants attended 1 of 22 assessment centers across the United Kingdom between 2006 and 2010. The present study was conducted from May 1 to July 11, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and type 2 diabetes were determined at assessment, based on self-report. Blood pressure was measured clinically. Participants self-reported sociodemographic information pertaining to relevant confounders. A polygenic risk score comprising 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with BMI from previous genome-wide association studies was constructed, and the genetic risk score was applied to derive causal estimates using a mendelian randomization approach. Results: Of the 119 859 individuals included in the study, 56 816 (47.4%) were men; mean (SD) age was 56.87 (7.93) years. Mendelian randomization analysis showed significant positive associations between genetically instrumented higher BMI and risk of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] per 1-SD higher BMI, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.48-1.83; P = 1.1 × 10-19), coronary heart disease (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.09-1.69; P = .007) and type 2 diabetes (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 2.04-3.13; P = 1.5 × 10-17), as well as systolic blood pressure (β = 1.65 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.78-2.52 mm Hg; P = 2.0 × 10-04) and diastolic blood pressure (β  = 1.37 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.88-1.85 mm Hg; P = 3.6 × 10-08). These associations were independent of age, sex, Townsend deprivation scores, alcohol intake, and smoking history. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study add to the burgeoning evidence of an association between higher BMI and increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. This finding has relevance for public health policies in many countries with increasing obesity levels.

  • Intratumoral stromal morphometry predicts disease recurrence but not response to 5-fluorouracil-results from the QUASAR trial of colorectal cancer.

    25 December 2017

    The biological importance of tumour-associated stroma is becoming increasingly apparent, but its clinical utility remains ill-defined. For stage II/Dukes B colorectal cancer (CRC), clinical biomarkers are urgently required to direct therapeutic options. We report here prognostic/predictive analyses, and molecular associations, of stromal morphometric quantification in the Quick and Simple and Reliable (QUASAR) trial of CRC.Relative proportions of tumour epithelium (PoT) or stroma (PoS) were morphometrically quantified on digitised haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections derived from 1800 patients enrolled in QUASAR, which randomised 3239 (91% stage II) CRC patients between adjuvant fluorouracil/folinic acid (FUFA) chemotherapy and observation. The prognostic and predictive values of PoT/PoS measurements were determined by the use of stratified log-rank analyses. A high proportion of tumour stroma (≥50%) was associated with an increased recurrence risk: 31.3% (143/457) recurrence for ≥50% versus 21.9% (294/1343) for <50% [rate ratio (RR) 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-2.02; P < 0.0001]. Of patients with stromal proportions of ≥65%, 40% (46/115) had recurrent disease within 10 years. The adverse prognostic effect of a high stromal proportion was independent of established prognostic variables, and was maintained in stage II/Dukes B patients (RR 1.62; 95% CI 1.26-2.08; P = 0.0002). KRAS mutation in the presence of a high stromal proportion augmented recurrence risk (RR 2.93; 95% CI 1.87-4.59; P = 0.0005). Stromal morphometry did not predict response to FUFA chemotherapy.Simple digital morphometry applied to a single representative H&E section identifies CRC patients with a >50% higher risk of disease recurrence. This technique can reliably partition patients into subpopulations with different risks of tumour recurrence in a simple and cost-effective manner. Further prospective validation is warranted.