• A smartphone intervention for adolescent obesity: study protocol for a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial.

    8 December 2017

    BACKGROUND: There are few evidence-based mobile health solutions for treating adolescent obesity. The primary aim of this parallel non-inferiority trial is to assess the effectiveness of an experimental smartphone application in reducing obesity at 12 months, compared to the Temple Street W82GO Healthy Lifestyles intervention. METHODS/DESIGN: The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index standardised deviation score at 12 months. The secondary aim is to compare the effect of treatment on secondary outcomes, including waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, quality of life, physical activity and psychosocial health. Adolescents with a body mass index at or above the 98th percentile (12 to 17 years) will be recruited from the Obesity clinic at Temple Street Children's University Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. W82GO is a family-based lifestyle change intervention delivered in two phases over 12 months. In the current study, participants will be randomised for phase two of treatment to either usual care or care delivered via smartphone application. One hundred and thirty-four participants will be randomised between the two study arms. An intention-to-treat analysis will be used to compare treatment differences between the groups at 12 months. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will be disseminated via open access publication and will provide important information for clinicians, patients and policy makers regarding the use of mobile health interventions in the management of adolescent obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01804855.

  • Gestational age specific postnatal growth curves for singleton babies in a tertiary hospital of Western Nepal

    12 December 2017

    © 2017, Nepal Medical Association. All rights reserved. Introduction: Measurement of birth weight, crown-heel length, head circumference and chest circumference used to assess the intrauterine growth of a baby vary with altitude, race, gender, socio-economic status, maternal size, and maternal diseases. The study aimed to construct centile charts for birth weight, crown-heel length and head circumference for new born at different gestational ages in Western Nepal. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study done over a period of 15 months in a tertiary care hospital of Western Nepal. Birth weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference were measured within 12-24 hours of birth. Gestational age was estimated from the first day of last menstrual period and New Ballard’s scoring system. Microsoft 2007 Excel and SPSS-16 was used for data analysis. Cole’s Lambda Mu Sigma method was used for constructing centile curves. Results: Out of 2000 babies analysed, 1910 samples were used to construct smoothed intrauterine growth curve of birth weight, crown-heel length, and head circumference from 33-42 weeks of gestation. Among all, 1147 (57.35%) were male and 853 (42.65%) were female, mean gestational age was 38.13±2.44 weeks. The means of birth weight, crown-heel length, head and chest circumference were 2744.78 gm, 47.80 cm, 33.18 cm, and 30.20 cm with standard deviations of 528.29, 3.124, 1.78, and 2.35 respectively. Conclusions: This necessitates the update in the existing growth charts and development in different geographical regions of a country.

  • Gallstone Disease and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    8 December 2017

    Gallstone disease (GSD) is related to several diabetes risk factors. The present study was to examine whether GSD was independently associated with type 2 diabetes in the China Kadoorie Biobank study. After excluding participants with prevalent diabetes and prior histories of cancer, heart disease, and stroke at baseline, 189,154 men and 272,059 women aged 30-79 years were eligible for analysis. The baseline prevalence of GSD was 5.7% of the included participants. During 4,138,687 person-years of follow-up (median, 9.1 years), a total of 4,735 men and 7,747 women were documented with incident type 2 diabetes. Compared with participants without GSD at baseline, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for type 2 diabetes for those with GSD were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.96-1.24; P = 0.206), 1.21 (95% CI: 1.13-1.30; P < 0.001), and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.10-1.25; P < 0.001) in men, women, and the whole cohort respectively. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity between men and women (P = 0.347 for interaction). The association between GSD and type 2 diabetes was strongest among participants who reported ≥5 years since the first diagnosis and were still on treatment at baseline (HR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.16-1.88; P = 0.001). The present study highlights the importance of developing a novel prevention strategy to mitigate type 2 diabetes through improvement of gastrointestinal health.

  • Age at natural menopause and risk of diabetes in adult women: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank study in Zhejiang area.

    15 December 2017

    AIMS: There has been considerable professional debate on the association between age at menopause and diabetes risk, while the findings are controversial. This study explored the association between late menopause and the prevalence of diabetes in the Chinese population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data were part of the baseline survey of China Kadoorie Biobank from Zhejiang Province. A total of 17,076 postmenopausal women were included in the present study. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of the participating women, 1,288 (7.54%) had type 2 diabetes. In comparison with those with menopause at 46-52 years, women with menopause at a later age (≥ 53 years) were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.03-1.43) times more likely to have diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that later age at menopause was associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Effect of total, domain-specific, and intensity-specific physical activity on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among hypertensive adults in China.

    12 December 2017

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively examine the associations of total, domain-specific, and intensity-specific physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese hypertensive adults. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study in 150 391 hypertensive participants aged 30-79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank study of 512 891 participants recruited from 10 diverse areas across China during 2004-2008. Participants with heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer at baseline were excluded. RESULTS: During 1069 863 person-years of follow-up (median 7.1 years), a total of 5332 men and 4384 women died. Compared with hypertensive participants in the lowest level of total physical activity, the hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.80 (0.76-0.84), 0.69 (0.65-0.73), and 0.67 (0.62-0.72) for those in quartiles 2-4 (Ptrend < 0.001), respectively. Inverse associations were also observed for cardiovascular mortality. Being active in occupational, domestic, and leisure time were associated with lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. However, the adjusted ratio for active commuting was 1.08 (1.02-1.15) for all-cause mortality. High levels of low-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity were consistently associated with lower risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSION: Among Chinese hypertensive adults, a higher level of physical activity reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, independent of intensities of physical activity. Not only leisure-time but also occupational and domestic physical activities were benefited.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0.

  • Correcting the Standard Errors of 2-Stage Residual Inclusion Estimators for Mendelian Randomization Studies.

    12 December 2017

    Mendelian randomization studies use genotypes as instrumental variables to test for and estimate the causal effects of modifiable risk factors on outcomes. Two-stage residual inclusion (TSRI) estimators have been used when researchers are willing to make parametric assumptions. However, researchers are currently reporting uncorrected or heteroscedasticity-robust standard errors for these estimates. We compared several different forms of the standard error for linear and logistic TSRI estimates in simulations and in real-data examples. Among others, we consider standard errors modified from the approach of Newey (1987), Terza (2016), and bootstrapping. In our simulations Newey, Terza, bootstrap, and corrected 2-stage least squares (in the linear case) standard errors gave the best results in terms of coverage and type I error. In the real-data examples, the Newey standard errors were 0.5% and 2% larger than the unadjusted standard errors for the linear and logistic TSRI estimators, respectively. We show that TSRI estimators with modified standard errors have correct type I error under the null. Researchers should report TSRI estimates with modified standard errors instead of reporting unadjusted or heteroscedasticity-robust standard errors.

  • Suicidal risk factors of recurrent major depression in Han Chinese women.

    12 December 2017

    The relationship between suicidality and major depression is complex. Socio- demography, clinical features, comorbidity, clinical symptoms, and stressful life events are important factors influencing suicide in major depression, but these are not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the associations between the above-mentioned factors and suicide ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt in 6008 Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression (MD). Patients with any suicidality had significantly more MD symptoms, a significantly greater number of stressful life events, a positive family history of MD, a greater number of episodes, a significant experience of melancholia, and earlier age of onset. Comorbidity with dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, and animal phobia was seen in suicidal patients. The present findings indicate that specific factors act to increase the likelihood of suicide in MD. Our results may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients, especially for women.