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  • Impact of tuberculosis on HIV disease progression in persons with well-documented time of HIV seroconversion.

    16 October 2018

    Tuberculosis (TB) enhances HIV replication in vitro, but its impact on HIV progression at the population level is not established. Studies from industrialized and nonindustrialized countries show contradictory results as to whether TB accelerates HIV progression, although no studies have been conducted in persons with well-documented seroconversion times. Data from HIV seroconverters from 19 cohorts were analyzed to examine the effect of TB on HIV progression comparing persons with TB and persons without TB infected by HIV for the same length of time. TB and other AIDS-defining conditions (ADCs) were fitted as time-dependent covariates, adjusting for age, sex, transmission category, calendar year at risk, and cohort, using Cox proportional hazards models and allowing for late entry. Of 4398 seroconverters, 1294 (29%) developed AIDS. TB accounted for 72 (5.6%) of initial ADCs and for 105 (5.7%) of all ADCs. Survival from HIV seroconversion shows that compared with AIDS-free subjects, the risk of death associated with TB as an initial ADC (hazard ratio [HR] = 23.23, 95% CI: 14.60-36.96) does not differ from that associated with Kaposi sarcoma (HR = 23.47, 95% CI: 16.66-33.05) or esophageal candidiasis (OC)/Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (HR = 30.97, 95% CI: 24.38-39.34) but is lower than that for opportunistic infections other than TB, OC/PCP (HR = 46.83, 95% CI: 37.86-47.94) and high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas/invasive cervical carcinoma (HR = 92.71, 95% CI: 60.83-141.3). The lowest risk of death was seen, as expected, in AIDS-free subjects. HIV progression is not inherently faster in subjects who develop TB compared with other individuals with AIDS who have been infected by HIV for the same length of time in countries where TB treatment is widely available.

  • A case-control study of human immunodeficiency virus infection and cancer in adults and children residing in Kampala, Uganda.

    16 October 2018

    Uganda offers a unique setting in which to study the effect of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) on cancer. HIV-1 is prevalent there, and cancers which are known to be HIV-associated, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and Burkitt's lymphoma, are endemic. Adults residing in Kampala, Uganda, presenting with cancer in city hospitals were interviewed and had an HIV test. Of the 302 adults recruited, 190 had cancers with a potentially infectious aetiology (cases). The remaining 112 adults with tumours not known to have an infectious aetiology formed the control group. In addition, 318 children who were also Kampala residents were recruited and tested for HIV: 128 with cancer (cases) and 190 with non-malignant conditions (controls). HIV seroprevalence was 24% in adult controls and 6% in childhood controls. The odds of HIV seropositivity among cases with specific cancers (other than Kaposi's sarcoma in adults) were compared with that among controls, using odds ratios (ORs), estimated with unconditional logistic regression. All ORs were adjusted for age (<5, 5-14, 15-19, 30-44, 45+) and sex and, in adults, also for the number of lifetime sexual partners (1 or 2, 3-9, 10+). In adults, HIV infection was associated with a significantly (p < 0.05) increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [OR = 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-19.9, based on 21 cases] and conjunctival squamous-cell carcinoma (OR = 10.9, 95% CI 3.1-37.7, based on 22 cases) but not with cancer at other common sites, including liver and uterine cervix. In children, HIV infection was associated with a significantly increased risk of Kaposi's sarcoma (OR = 94.9, 95% CI 28.5-315.3, based on 36 cases) and Burkitt's lymphoma (OR = 7.5, 95% CI 2.8-20.1, based on 33 cases) but not with other cancers. The pattern of HIV-associated cancers in Uganda is broadly similar to that described elsewhere, but the relative frequency of specific cancers, such as conjunctival carcinoma, in HIV-infected people differs.

  • Antibodies to human papillomavirus and to other genital infectious agents and invasive cervical cancer risk.

    16 October 2018

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) play an important part in the development of cervical cancer, but the role of other infectious agents, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), is not clear. We assayed serum samples collected from 219 women with cervical cancer and from 387 controls for antibody to infectious agents. HPV 16-E7 and/or HPV 18-E7 antibodies were significantly related to cervical cancer risk (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.2). Antibodies to HSV types 1 and 2, Chlamydia trachomatis, and to multiple infectious agents were associated with cervical cancer when seroprevalence rates in all cases and controls were compared, but when HPV-seropositive cases and controls were compared these associations were weaker and non-significant. This finding suggests that past infections with sexually transmitted infections other than HPV may be surrogate markers of exposure to HPV, and of no separate aetiological significance.

  • The association of plasma IGF-I with dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric, and early life factors in postmenopausal women

    16 October 2018

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Objective: Higher circulating concentrations of insulin like growth factor (IGF-I) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between circulating IGF-I concentrations and dietary factors (intakes of protein, dairy protein, and alcohol), lifestyle factors (smoking and HT use), anthropometric indices (height and adiposity) and factors in early life (birth weight, having been breastfed, body size at age 10, and at age 20) in postmenopausal women in the UK. Design: An analysis of plasma IGF-I concentrations (measured by immunoassay) in 1883 postmenopausal women. Multivariate analysis was used to examine correlates of plasma IGF-I concentrations. Results: Women in the highest quintile of total protein and dairy protein intakes had, respectively, 7.6% and 5.5% higher plasma IGF-I concentrations than women in the lowest quintile (p trend <. 0.05 for both). Other factors significantly (p<. 0.05) associated with reduced IGF-I concentrations were: consuming 14 or more vs 3-7 alcoholic drinks per week (8.8% lower IGF-I); current vs non-current HT users (9.9% lower IGF-I); current use of oestrogen alone vs oestrogen. +. progestagen (16.9% lower IGF-I); obese vs overweight (6.8% lower IGF-I); and women who reported wearing larger vs smaller clothes sizes at age 20 (4.9% lower IGF-I). Conclusions: This study in post-menopausal women identified several potentially modifiable determinants of circulating IGF-I concentrations. There is now strong evidence from this and other studies that IGF-I concentrations are associated with dietary protein intakes.