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  • Circulating insulin-like growth factor I in relation to melanoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    4 October 2018

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, and is thought to play a role in tumour development. Previous prospective studies have shown that higher circulating concentrations of IGF-I are associated with a higher risk of cancers at specific sites, including breast and prostate. No prospective study has examined the association between circulating IGF-I concentrations and melanoma risk. A nested case-control study of 1221 melanoma cases and 1221 controls was performed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, a prospective cohort of 520,000 participants recruited from 10 European countries. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for incident melanoma in relation to circulating IGF-I concentrations, measured by immunoassay. Analyses were conditioned on the matching factors and further adjusted for age at blood collection, education, height, BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, marital status, physical activity, and in women only, use of menopausal hormone therapy. There was no significant association between circulating IGF-I concentration and melanoma risk (OR for highest vs lowest fifth=0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71 to 1.22)). There was no significant heterogeneity in the association between IGF-I concentrations and melanoma risk when subdivided by sex, age at blood collection, BMI, height, age at diagnosis, time between blood collection and diagnosis, or by anatomical site or histological subtype of the tumour (Pheterogeneity≥0.078). We found no evidence for an association between circulating concentrations of IGF-I measured in adulthood and the risk of melanoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Association between tea drinking and stroke in adults in Zhejiang province: A Prospective study

    4 October 2018

    © Chinese Medical Association. All rights reserved. Objective To prospectively explore the association between tea drinking and incidence of stroke of adults of Zhejiang province. Methods After excluding participants with heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes at baseline study, 53 916 participants aged 30-79 years in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study from Tongxiang were included for final analysis. Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for the association of tea drinking with incident stroke. Results The main type of drinking tea was black tea (79.78%), followed by green tea (20.08%). Of the 53 916 participants, the proportion of participants who drank tea at least once per week was 31.27%. The corresponding proportions for men and women were 60.24% and 10.30%, respectively. Among 391 512 person-years of the follow-up program (median 7.26 years), a total of 1 487 men and 1 769 women were diagnosed with stroke. After adjusting for socio-demographic status, lifestyle, BMI, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, HR for incident stroke decreased with the increase of daily average tea consumption amount (P=0.000 6). Compared with participants who did not drink tea weekly, the HRs for incident stroke in those consuming tea 0.1-, 3.0- and ≥5.0 g/d were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.85-1.00), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77-0.99) and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69-0.89), respectively. The HRs for incident stroke in smokers and non-smokers who consumed tea ≥5.0 g/d were 0.71 (95%Cl: 0.59-0.86) and 0.97 (95%C7: 0.77-1.21), respectively, compared with current smokers and non-smokers who did not drink tea weekly (P=0.040 0). The corresponding HRs for alcohol drinkers and non-drinkers were 0.96 (95%CI: 0.76-1.22) and 0.70 (95%CI: 0.58-0.84), respectively (P=0.040 0). The corresponding HRs for central obese persons and non-central obese persons were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44-0.81) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.73-1.01), respectively (P=0.040 0). Conclusion Tea drinking had an effect on reducing the possibility of incident stroke, especially among those who were current smokers, non-alcohol drinkers and central obese.

  • Impact of karyotype on treatment outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.

    29 August 2018

    Over the course of the last three decades it has become apparent that the majority of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are characterized by at least one of a variety of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities. Whilst in many instances it remains uncertain as to which abnormalities represent primary events in the pathogenesis of AML, those which provide critical second hits that are required for progression to full blown leukemia or those that are merely markers of the leukemic process, it is nevertheless clear that diagnostic karyotype is a key determinant of outcome in this disease. Indeed there is mounting evidence to support the notion that cytogenetic analysis can serve to identify biologically distinct subsets of AML that demand tailored therapeutic approaches. This underpins the trend towards more widespread adoption of routine cytogenetic and molecular analysis in the characterization of patients with a diagnosis of acute leukemia. A key challenge for the future is to use this information to achieve greater consensus in risk group assignment of AML which will provide a more reliable framework for determining the most appropriate treatment approach for individual patients with this disease.

  • Long-term follow-up of the United Kingdom Medical Research Council protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 1980-1997. Medical Research Council Childhood Leukaemia Working Party.

    29 August 2018

    Results of three consecutive completed UK trials (1980-1997) for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia are presented. National accrual has progressively increased so that over 90% of all the country's ALL cases were treated on the latest trial reported, UKALLXI. From 1980 to 1990, event-free and overall survival progressively improved, following adoption of an American therapy template and use of two post-remission intensification modules. Since 1990 despite demonstration of the benefit of a third intensification module overall event-free survival (EFS) has not improved further. Survival remains high due to a good retrieval rate especially for those relapsing off treatment after receipt of two intensification pulses. Possible reasons for the plateau in event-free survival (including type and dose of induction steroid, dropping of induction anthracycline, type and dose of asparaginase, gaps early in therapy following intensification, and overall lack of compliance in maintenance) are being explored in the latest protocol ALL '97. Cranial irradiation had been successfully replaced by a long course of intrathecal methotrexate injections for the majority of patients. Age (<1 year >10 years) sex (male) and white count >50 x 10(9)/l plus slow initial bone marrow clearance were consistently the most important independent prognostic indicators during this time period. Rome/NCI criteria accurately predict standard and high-risk groups for B cell lineage, but not consistently for T cell disease. This international collaborative venture might help us to define those truly at highest risk, and how we can optimise therapy for specific subgroups including T-ALL and those with unfavourable cytogenetics.