Section 6: References
(1) ANON. Review of mortality results in randomized trials in early breast cancer. Lancet 1984; ii: 1205.
(2) EARLY BREAST CANCER TRIALISTS' COLLABORATIVE GROUP. Effects of adjuvant tamoxifen and of cytotoxic therapy on mortality in early breast cancer. New Engl J Med 1988; 319: 1681-1692.
(3) CUZICK J, STEWART H, PETO R, ET AL. Overview of randomized trials of post-operative adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer. Cancer Treatment Reports 1987; 71: 15-29.
(4) PETO R. Why do we need systematic overviews of randomized trials? Stat Med 1987; 6: 233-240.
(5) YUSUF S, PETO R, LEWIS J, COLLINS R, SLEIGHT P. Beta-blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1985; 27: 335-371.
(6) ANTIPLATELET TRIALISTS' COLLABORATION. Secondary prevention of vascular disease by prolonged antiplatelet treatment. Brit Med J 1988; 296: 320-331.
(7) CARTER SK. Acute lymphocytic leukemia. In Randomized trials in cancer: a critical review by sites (Staquet M, ed). New York: Raven Press, 1978, pp.l-24.
(8) ROZENCWEIG M, VON HOFF DD, DAVIS HL, JACOBS EM, MUGGIA FM, DEVITA VT. Hodgkin's Disease. In Randomized trials in cancer: a critical review by sites (Staquet M, ed). New York: Raven Press, 1978, pp.103-130.
(9) YUSUF S, COLLINS R, PETO R. Why do we need some large, simple randomized trials? Statistics in Medicine 1984; 3: 409-420.
(10) SILVERBERG E. Cancer Statistics, 1988. "Ca -- A cancer journal for clinicians". American Cancer Society, New York, 1988; 38(1): 5-22.
(11) DICKERSIN K, CHAN SS, CHALMERS TC, SACKS HS, SMITH H. Publication bias in randomized control trials. Controlled Clinical Trials 1987; 8: 343-353.
(12) SIMES RJ. Publication bias: the case for an international registry of clinical trials. J Clin Oncology 1986; 4: 1529-1541.
(13) REES JKH, GRAY RG, SWIRSKY D, HAYHOE FGJ. Principal results of the Medical Research Council's 8th Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Trial. Lancet 1986; ii: 1236-41.
(14) BYAR DP. Why data bases should not replace randomized clinical trials. Biometrics 1980; 36: 337-342.
(15) PETO R. Statistical aspects of cancer trials. In: The treatment of cancer (Halnan K, ed). London: Chapman & Hall, 1982, pp.867-871.
(16) GAIL M, SIMON R. Testing for qualitative interactions between treatment effects and patient subsets. Biometrics 1985; 41: 361-372.
(17) ISIS-2 COLLABORATIVE GROUP. Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. Lancet 1988; ii: 349-360.
(18) ISIS-1 COLLABORATIVE GROUP. Randomised trial of intravenous atenolol among 16 027 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-1. Lancet 1986; ii: 57-66.
(19) COLLINS R, GRAY R, GODWIN J, PETO R. Avoidance of large biases and large random errors in the assessment of moderate treatment effects. the need for systematic overviews. Stat Med 1987; 6: 245-250.
(20) FEINLEIB M. Breast cancer and artificial menopause: a cohort study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1968; 41: 315-329.
(21) COLDITZ GA, WILLETT WC, STAMPFER MJ, ROSNER 8, SPEIZER FE, HENNKENS CH. Menopause and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. New Engl J Med 1987; 316: 1105-1110.
(22) STAMPFER MJ, WILLETT WC, COLDITZ GA, ROSNER B, SPEIZER FE, HENNEKENS CH. A prospective study of postmenopausal estrogen therapy and coronary heart disease. New Engl J Med 1985; 313: 1044-1049.
(23) KEY TJA, PIKE MC. The dose-effect relationship between "unopposed" oestrogens and endometrial mitotic rate: its central role in explaining and predicting endometrial cancer risk. Br J Cancer 1988; 57: 205-212.
(24) VESSEY MP. The Jephcott Lecture 1989: An overview of the benefits and risks of combined oral contraceptives. In Oral contraceptives and breast cancer: the implications of present findings for informed consent and informal choice(Mann RD,ed). Carnforth: Parthenon Publishing Group 1990.
(25) BYAR DP, CORLE DK. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer: results of the Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group Studies. National Cancer Institute Monographs 1988; 7: 165-170.
(26) INTERNATIONALAGENCY FOR RESEARCH ON CANCER. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, Volume 41: Some antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents. Lyon: IARC, 1981, pp.l-411.
(27) UNITED NATIONS SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON THE EFFECTS OF ATOMIC RADIATION. Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation. New York: United Nations, 1988.
(28) UNITED NATIONS SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON THE EFFECTS OF ATOMIC RADIATION. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. New York: United Nations, 1977.
(29) MANTEL N. Evaluation of survival data and two new rank order statistics arising in its consideration. Cancer Chemotherapy Reports 1966; 50: 163-170.
(30) PETO R, PIKE MC, ARMITAGE P, ET AL. Design and analysis of randomised clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. Br J Cancer 1976; 34: 585-612.
(31) PETO R, PIKE MC, ARMITAGE P, ET AL. Design and analysis of randomised clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. Br J Cancer 1977; 35: 1-39.
(32) GREENLAND S, SALVAN A. Bias in the one-step method for pooling study results. Stat Med 1990; 9: 247-252
(33) HENNEKENS CH, BURING JE, SANDERCOCK P, COLLINS R, PETO R. Aspirin and other antiplatelet agents in the secondary and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 1989; 80: 749-756.
(34) PATERSON R. Breast cancer: a report of two clinical trials. J Roy Coll Surgeons Edin 1962; 7: 243-254
(35) HENDERSON IC. Adjuvant systemic therapy of early breast cancer and endocrine therapy of metastatic breast cancer. In: Harris JR, Hellman S, Henderson IC, Kinne DW, eds. Breast diseases. Philadelphia: J B Lippincott, 1987: 324-353.
(36) GRUPPO ITALIANO PER LO STUDIO DELLA STREPTOCHINASI NELL' INFARTO MIOCARDICO (GISSI). Effectiveness of intravenous thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1986: i: 397-402.
4.1 .3 *Only trials in which such comparisons are "unconfounded" are included. By definition, in unconfounded trials one group differs from another only in the treatment of interest: thus, the tamoxifen overview includes trials of tamoxifen plus chemotherapy versus the same chemotherapy alone, but not trials of tamoxifen plus prednisone versus no treatment. (ln trials of chemotherapy, however, prednisone was considered an integral part of the chemotherapy regimen being evaluated, so trials of chemotherapy plus prednisone versus no treatment were included in the chemotherapy overview.)