Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men.
Watts EL., Appleby PN., Albanes D., Black A., Chan JM., Chen C., Cirillo PM., Cohn BA., Cook MB., Donovan JL., Ferrucci L., Garland CF., Giles GG., Goodman PJ., Habel LA., Haiman CA., Holly JMP., Hoover RN., Kaaks R., Knekt P., Kolonel LN., Kubo T., Le Marchand L., Luostarinen T., MacInnis RJ., Mäenpää HO., Männistö S., Metter EJ., Milne RL., Nomura AMY., Oliver SE., Parsons JK., Peeters PH., Platz EA., Riboli E., Ricceri F., Rinaldi S., Rissanen H., Sawada N., Schaefer CA., Schenk JM., Stanczyk FZ., Stampfer M., Stattin P., Stenman U-H., Tjønneland A., Trichopoulou A., Thompson IM., Tsugane S., Vatten L., Whittemore AS., Ziegler RG., Allen NE., Key TJ., Travis RC.
INTRODUCTION: Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin. METHODS: Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates. RESULTS: Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones. CONCLUSION: Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass index, and to a lesser extent with smoking status and alcohol consumption.