A prospective analysis of the association between macronutrient intake and renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Allen NE., Roddam AW., Sieri S., Boeing H., Jakobsen MU., Overvad K., Tjønneland A., Halkjaer J., Vineis P., Contiero P., Palli D., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Trichopoulou A., Zilis D., Koumantaki Y., Peeters PH., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Barricarte A., Rodríguez L., Dorronsoro M., Sánchez M-J., Chirlaque MD., Esquius L., Manjer J., Wallström P., Ljungberg B., Hallmans G., Bingham S., Khaw K-T., Boffetta P., Norat T., Mouw T., Riboli E.
Previous case-control studies have suggested that a high intake of animal foods and its associated nutrients are associated with an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma, although data from prospective studies are limited. We report here on the relationship between macronutrient intake and renal cell carcinoma incidence among 435,293 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of dietary intake of fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber and cholesterol and risk of renal cell carcinoma adjusted for age, sex, center, height, body mass index, physical activity, education, smoking, menopausal status, alcohol and energy intake. During an average 8.8 years of follow-up, 507 renal cell carcinoma cases occurred. Risk of renal cell carcinoma was not associated with macronutrient intake, including nutrients derived from animal sources. Our results indicate that macronutrient intake is not associated with risk of renal cell carcinoma in this cohort of European men and women.