AIMS: To estimate the immediate and long-term inpatient and non-inpatient costs for Type 2 diabetes-related complications. METHODS: The costs of all consultations, visits, admissions and procedures associated with diabetes-related complications during UK Prospective Diabetes Study post-trial monitoring in the period 1997-2007 were estimated using hospitalization records for 2791 patients in England and resource use questionnaires that were administered to 3589 patients across the UK. RESULTS: The estimated (95% CI) inpatient care costs (in 2012 pounds sterling) in the event year for the example of a 60-year-old man were: non-fatal ischaemic heart disease £9767 (£7038-£12 696); amputation £9546 (£6416-£13 463); non-fatal stroke £6805 (£3856-£10 278); non-fatal myocardial infarction £6379 (£4290-£8339); fatal stroke £3954 (£2012-£6428); fatal ischaemic heart disease £3766 (£746-£5512); heart failure £3191 (£1678-4903); fatal myocardial infarction £1521 (£647-£2670); and blindness in one eye £1355 (£415-£2655). In subsequent years, estimated (95% CI) costs ranged from £1792 (£1060-£2943) for amputations to £453 (£315-£691) for blindness in one eye. Costs of non-inpatient healthcare in the event year were: amputation £2699 (£1409-£4126); blindness in one eye £1790 (£878-£3056); non-fatal stroke £1019 (£770-£1499); nonfatal myocardial infarction £1963 (£794-£1157); heart failure £979 (£708-£1344); non-fatal ischaemic heart disease £864 (£718-£1014); and cataract extraction £700 (£619-£780). In each subsequent year, non-inpatient costs ranged from £1611 (£1193-£2116) for amputations to £654 (£572-£799) for ischaemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic complications are associated with substantial immediate and long-term healthcare costs. Our comprehensive new estimates of these costs, derived from detailed recent UK Prospective Diabetes Study post-trial data, should aid researchers and health policy analyses.

Original publication




Journal article


Diabet Med

Publication Date





459 - 466


Aged, Diabetes Complications, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Female, Health Care Costs, Hospital Costs, Hospitalization, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prospective Studies, United Kingdom