Hemodynamic effects of captopril and isosorbide mononitrate started early in acute myocardial infarction: a randomized placebo-controlled study.
Pipilis A., Flather M., Collins R., Coats A., Conway M., Appleby P., Sleight P.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to study the hemodynamic effects of orally administered captopril and isosorbide mononitrate in suspected acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Early treatment with converting enzyme inhibitors and nitrates in acute myocardial infarction may limit infarct expansion and prevent left ventricular dilation. METHODS: In a double-blind study, 81 patients were randomized within 36 h of the onset of symptoms of suspected acute myocardial infarction to 1 month of oral captopril (6.25 mg initial dose, followed 2 h later by 12.5 mg and continuing with 12.5 mg three times daily), isosorbide mononitrate (initial dose 20 mg followed by 20 mg three times daily) or matching placebo. The effects of treatment on changes from baseline in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance were assessed noninvasively using Doppler echocardiography 1 h after the first dose, 1 week after infarction and at 6 weeks (that is, 2 weeks after the scheduled end of trial treatment). RESULTS: One hour after the start of treatment, blood pressure was reduced by approximately 10% with both captopril and isosorbide mononitrate, but this difference did not persist at 1 week. Captopril was associated with a significant increase in cardiac output compared with placebo of 13 +/- 3% at 1 h (p < 0.01), 23 +/- 5% at 1 week (p < 0.001) and 22 +/- 6% (p < 0.05) at 6 weeks (2 weeks after the end of trial treatment). This increase in cardiac output with captopril was mainly due to a substantial and sustained increase in stroke volume, although there was also a small increase in heart rate at 1 week. Both captopril and isosorbide mononitrate reduced systemic vascular resistance within 1 h of the start of treatment, but only the effect of captopril was sustained (perhaps because the three-times daily nitrate regimen induced tolerance). Study treatment was well tolerated, and the incidence of withdrawal of study treatment for hypotension was not significantly different from that with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the hemodynamic effects of both captopril and isosorbide mononitrate are well tolerated in the acute phase of myocardial infarction and that captopril favorably influences cardiac function.