Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Albuminuria, and Adverse Outcomes: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis.
Writing Group for the CKD Prognosis Consortium None., Grams ME., Coresh J., Matsushita K., Ballew SH., Sang Y., Surapaneni A., Alencar de Pinho N., Anderson A., Appel LJ., Ärnlöv J., Azizi F., Bansal N., Bell S., Bilo HJG., Brunskill NJ., Carrero JJ., Chadban S., Chalmers J., Chen J., Ciemins E., Cirillo M., Ebert N., Evans M., Ferreiro A., Fu EL., Fukagawa M., Green JA., Gutierrez OM., Herrington WG., Hwang S-J., Inker LA., Iseki K., Jafar T., Jassal SK., Jha V., Kadota A., Katz R., Köttgen A., Konta T., Kronenberg F., Lee BJ., Lees J., Levin A., Looker HC., Major R., Melzer Cohen C., Mieno M., Miyazaki M., Moranne O., Muraki I., Naimark D., Nitsch D., Oh W., Pena M., Purnell TS., Sabanayagam C., Satoh M., Sawhney S., Schaeffner E., Schöttker B., Shen JI., Shlipak MG., Sinha S., Stengel B., Sumida K., Tonelli M., Valdivielso JM., van Zuilen AD., Visseren FLJ., Wang AY-M., Wen C-P., Wheeler DC., Yatsuya H., Yamagata K., Yang JW., Young A., Zhang H., Zhang L., Levey AS., Gansevoort RT.
IMPORTANCE: Chronic kidney disease (low estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or albuminuria) affects approximately 14% of adults in the US. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations of lower eGFR based on creatinine alone, lower eGFR based on creatinine combined with cystatin C, and more severe albuminuria with adverse kidney outcomes, cardiovascular outcomes, and other health outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual-participant data meta-analysis of 27 503 140 individuals from 114 global cohorts (eGFR based on creatinine alone) and 720 736 individuals from 20 cohorts (eGFR based on creatinine and cystatin C) and 9 067 753 individuals from 114 cohorts (albuminuria) from 1980 to 2021. EXPOSURES: The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration 2021 equations for eGFR based on creatinine alone and eGFR based on creatinine and cystatin C; and albuminuria estimated as urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The risk of kidney failure requiring replacement therapy, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, acute kidney injury, any hospitalization, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and peripheral artery disease. The analyses were performed within each cohort and summarized with random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Within the population using eGFR based on creatinine alone (mean age, 54 years [SD, 17 years]; 51% were women; mean follow-up time, 4.8 years [SD, 3.3 years]), the mean eGFR was 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD, 22 mL/min/1.73 m2) and the median UACR was 11 mg/g (IQR, 8-16 mg/g). Within the population using eGFR based on creatinine and cystatin C (mean age, 59 years [SD, 12 years]; 53% were women; mean follow-up time, 10.8 years [SD, 4.1 years]), the mean eGFR was 88 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD, 22 mL/min/1.73 m2) and the median UACR was 9 mg/g (IQR, 6-18 mg/g). Lower eGFR (whether based on creatinine alone or based on creatinine and cystatin C) and higher UACR were each significantly associated with higher risk for each of the 10 adverse outcomes, including those in the mildest categories of chronic kidney disease. For example, among people with a UACR less than 10 mg/g, an eGFR of 45 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2 based on creatinine alone was associated with significantly higher hospitalization rates compared with an eGFR of 90 to 104 mL/min/1.73 m2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.2-1.3]; 161 vs 79 events per 1000 person-years; excess absolute risk, 22 events per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 19-25 events per 1000 person-years]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this retrospective analysis of 114 cohorts, lower eGFR based on creatinine alone, lower eGFR based on creatinine and cystatin C, and more severe UACR were each associated with increased rates of 10 adverse outcomes, including adverse kidney outcomes, cardiovascular diseases, and hospitalizations.