Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Büchner FL., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Ros MM., Kampman E., Egevad L., Overvad K., Tjønneland A., Roswall N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault MC., Touillaud M., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Weikert S., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Benetou V., Palli D., Sieri S., Vineis P., Tumino R., Panico S., van Duijnhoven FJ., Peeters PH., van Gils CH., Lund E., Gram IT., Sánchez MJ., Jakszyn P., Larrañaga N., Ardanaz E., Navarro C., Rodríguez L., Manjer J., Ehrnström R., Hallmans G., Ljungberg B., Key TJ., Allen NE., Khaw KT., Wareham N., Slimani N., Jenab M., Boffetta P., Kiemeney LA., Riboli E.
Recent research does not show an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. None of these studies investigated variety in fruit and vegetable consumption, which may capture different aspects of consumption. We investigated whether a varied consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Detailed data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer incidence were available for 452,185 participants, who were recruited from ten European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 874 participants were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Diet diversity scores (DDSs) were used to quantify the variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of the DDSs on bladder cancer risk. There was no evidence of a statistically significant association between bladder cancer risk and any of the DDSs when these scores were considered as continuous covariates. However, the hazard ratio (HR) for the highest tertile of the DDS for combined fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally significant compared to the lowest (HR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.69, p-trend = 0.05). In EPIC, there is no clear association between a varied fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. This finding provides further evidence for the absence of any strong association between fruit and vegetable consumption as measured by a food frequency questionnaire and bladder cancer risk.