Background The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the associations between body composition measures and risk of incident heart failure (HF) and its subtypes in the general population. Methods and Results We searched Medline, Embase, and Global Health databases from each database inception to January 19, 2023 for prospective studies reporting on body composition and HF risk. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the risk of bias of included studies. Fixed-effects models were used for meta-analysis. Thirty-five studies were included (ntotal=1 137 044; ncases=34 422). Summary relative risk (RR) per 5-kg/m2 higher body mass index was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40-1.42; 𝜁2=0.02, I2=94.4%), 1.28 (95% CI, 1.26-1.31; 𝜁2=0.01, I2=75.8%) per 10-cm higher waist circumference, and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.28-1.37; 𝜁2=0.04, I2=94.9%) per 0.1-unit higher waist-hip ratio. Pooled estimates of the few studies that reported on regional fat suggested significant positive association between HF risk and both visceral fat (RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.04-1.12]) and pericardial fat (RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.06-1.10]). Among HF subtypes, associations were stronger for HF with preserved ejection fraction than HF with reduced ejection fraction. No study reported on lean mass. Conclusions Pooled data suggested strong associations between adiposity and HF. The association with adiposity is stronger for HF with preserved ejection fraction than HF with reduced ejection fraction, indicating that different mechanisms may be at play in etiopathogenesis of HF subtypes. Future studies are needed to investigate role of regional fat mass and lean mass in HF risk. Registration Information REGISTRATION: URL: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/. Unique identifier: CRD42020224584.
J Am Heart Assoc
adiposity, body composition, body mass index, heart failure, systematic review