Does ethnicity influence dementia, stroke and mortality risk? Evidence from the UK Biobank.
Bonnechère B., Liu J., Thompson A., Amin N., van Duijn C.
INTRODUCTION: The number of people with dementia and stroke is increasing worldwide. There is increasing evidence that there are clinically relevant genetic differences across ethnicities. This study aims to quantify risk factors of dementia, stroke, and mortality in Asian and black participants compared to whites. METHODS: 272,660 participants from the UK Biobank were included in the final analysis, among whom the vast majority are white (n = 266,671, 97.80%), followed by Asian (n = 3,790, 1.35%), and black (n = 2,358, 0.84%) participants. Cumulative incidence risk was calculated based on all incident cases occurring during the follow-up of the individuals without dementia and stroke at baseline. We compared the allele frequency of variants in Asian and black participants with the referent ethnicity, whites, by chi-square test. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used in the clustering analysis. Significance level corrected for the false discovery rate was considered. RESULTS: After adjusting for risk factors, black participants have an increased risk of dementia and stroke compared to white participants, while Asians has similar odds to the white. The risk of mortality is not different in blacks and white participants but Asians have a decreased risk. DISCUSSION: The study provides important insights into the potential differences in the risk of dementia and stroke among different ethnic groups. Specifically, the study found that black individuals had a higher incidence of dementia and stroke compared to white individuals living in the UK. These findings are particularly significant as they suggest that there may be underlying factors that contribute to these differences, including genetic, environmental, and social factors. By identifying these differences, the study helps to inform interventions and policies aimed at reducing the risk of dementia and stroke, particularly among high-risk populations.