OBJECTIVES: To compare the shape and strength of the associations of resting heart rate (RHR) with incident heart failure (HF) and pulmonary heart disease (PHD) in Chinese adults. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited >0.5 million adults from 10 geographically diverse regions (5 urban, 5 rural) of China during 2004-2008. After an 11-year follow-up, 6082 incident cases of HF and 5572 cases of PHD, were recorded among 491 785 participants with no prior history of heart disease or use of beta-blockers at baseline. Cox regression yielded HRs for each disease associated with usual RHR after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: The mean (SD) baseline RHR was 79 (12) (men 78 (12); women 80 (11)) bpm, and these decreased with increasing age (by about 1 bpm per 10 years). Usual RHR showed J-shaped associations with HF and log-linear associations PHD. For HF, each 10 bpm higher usual RHR was associated with an adjusted HR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.34) for RHR>75 bpm. For PHD, each 10 bpm higher RHR was associated with HR of 1.74 (1.67-1.81) across the full range of usual RHR. For HF at RHR>75 bpm but not PHD, the HRs per 10 bpm higher RHR were approximately halved by further adjustment for diabetes and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: RHR was strongly positively associated with PHD throughout the range studied, but was only associated with HF at RHR>75 bpm, and the strength of the associations with HF were only one-third of those with PHD.
epidemiology, heart failure, risk factors