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Genomic classification has improved risk assignment of pediatric but not adult B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The international UKALLXII/ECOG-ACRIN E2993 (NCT00002514) trial accrued 1229 BCR-ABL1-negative adolescent/adult B-ALL patients (aged 14-65 years). While 93% of patients achieved remission, 41% relapsed at a median of 13 months (range 28 days to 12 years). Five-year overall survival (5yr-OS) was 42% (95% CI, 39, 44). Transcriptome sequencing (n=238), gene expression profiling (n=210), cytogenetics (n=197) and fusion PCR (n=274) enabled genomic subtyping of 282 patient samples, of which 264 were eligible for trial, accounting for 64.5% of E2993 patients. Among patients in the outcome analysis, 29.5% of cases had favorable outcomes with 5yr-OS of 65-80% and were deemed standard-risk (DUX4-rearranged [9.2%], ETV6-RUNX1/-like [2.3%], TCF3-PBX1 [6.9%], PAX5 P80R [4.1%], high-hyperdiploid [6.9%]); 50.2% had high-risk genotypes with 5yr-OS of 0-27% (Ph-like [21.2%], KMT2A-AFF1 [12%], low-hypodiploid/near-haploid [14.3%], BCL2/MYC-rearranged [2.8%]); and 20.3% had intermediate-risk genotypes with 5yr-OS of 33-45% (PAX5alt [12.4%], ZNF384/-like [5.1%], MEF2D-rearranged [2.8%]). IKZF1 alterations occurred in 86% of Ph-like and TP53 mutations occurred in low-hypodiploid (54%) and BCL2/MYC-rearranged patients (33%), but were not independently associated with outcome. Of patients considered high-risk for relapse based on presenting age and WBC count, 40% harbored subtype-defining genetic alterations associated with standard- or intermediate-risk outcomes. We identified distinct immunophenotypic features for DUX4-rearranged, PAX5 P80R, ZNF384-R/-like and Ph-like genotypes. These data in a large adult B-ALL cohort treated with a non-risk-adapted approach on a single trial show the prognostic importance of genomic analyses which may translate into future therapeutic benefits.

Original publication

DOI

10.1182/blood.2020010144

Type

Journal article

Journal

Blood

Publication Date

25/04/2021