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Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.
BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders. METHODS: We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247-308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9·0 million [8·8-9·4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34-44] and DALYs by 15% [9-21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26-30] and DALYs by 27% [24-31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42·2% [38·6-46·1]), migraine (16·3% [11·7-20·8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10·4% [9·0-12·1]), and meningitis (7·9% [6·6-10·4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1·12 [1·05-1·20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0·7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88·8% (86·5-90·9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22·3% [11·8-35·1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14·1% [10·8-17·5] of DALYs are risk attributable). INTERPRETATION: Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Body Fat Distribution and Systolic Blood Pressure in 10,000 Adults with Whole-Body Imaging: UK Biobank and Oxford BioBank.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the associations of regional fat mass and fat-free mass with systolic blood pressure. METHODS: This analysis combined individual participant data from two large-scale imaging studies: UK Biobank and Oxford BioBank. In both studies, participants were interviewed and measured, and they underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging. Linear regression was used to relate systolic blood pressure to anthropometric measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived measures of body composition (visceral android fat, subcutaneous android fat, subcutaneous gynoid fat, and fat-free mass). RESULTS: Among 10,260 participants (mean age 49; 96% white), systolic blood pressure was positively associated with visceral android fat (3.2 mmHg/SD in men; 2.8 mmHg/SD in women) and fat-free mass (1.92 mmHg/SD in men; 1.64 mmHg/SD in women), but there was no evidence of an association with subcutaneous android or gynoid fat. Associations of systolic blood pressure with BMI were slightly steeper than those with waist circumference or waist to hip ratio; these associations remained unchanged following adjustment for fat-free mass, but adjustment for visceral android fat eliminated associations with waist circumference and waist to hip ratio and more than halved associations with BMI. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis indicates that visceral fat is the primary etiological component of excess adiposity underlying the development of adiposity-related hypertension.
Fluid Intake and Dietary Factors and the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones in UK Biobank: A Population-based Prospective Cohort Study.
BACKGROUND: Fluid intake and diet are thought to influence kidney stone risk. However, prospective studies have been limited to small samples sizes and/or restricted measures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fluid intake and dietary factors are associated with the risk of developing a first kidney stone. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were selected from UK Biobank, a population-based prospective cohort study. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between fluid intake and dietary factors and the risk of a first incident kidney stone, ascertained from hospital inpatient records. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: After exclusion, 439 072 participants were available for the analysis, of whom 2057 had hospital admission with an incident kidney stone over a mean of 6.1 yr of follow-up. For every additional drink (200 ml) consumed per day of total fluid, the risk of kidney stones declined by 13% (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.89). Similar patterns of associations were observed for tea, coffee, and alcohol, although no association was observed for water intake. Fruit and fibre intake was also associated with a lower risk (HR per 100 g increase of fruits per day = 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.93, and HR per 10 g fibre per day = 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87), whereas meat and salt intake was associated with a higher risk (HR per 50 g increase in meat per week = 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.29, and HR for always vs never/rarely added salt to food = 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.58). Vegetable, fish, and cheese intake was not associated with kidney stone risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that high intake of total fluid, fruit, and fibre was associated with a lower risk of hospitalisation for a first kidney stone suggests that modifiable dietary factors could be targeted to prevent kidney stone development. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that higher intake of total fluid, specifically tea, coffee, and alcohol (but not water), and consumption of fruit and foods high in fibre are linked with a reduced likelihood of developing kidney stones.
Corrigendum: Mental health in UK Biobank: Development, implementation and results from an online questionnaire completed by 157 366 participants (BJPsych Open (2018) 4:3 (83-90) DOI: 10.1192/bjo.2018.12)
© 2018 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. It has recently come to our attention that the above paper contains an error. One of the variables in table 3 labelled "moderate activity ≥ three times a week", and also referred to in the text as "Achieving recommended levels of physical activity", was extracted incorrectly. Please see below an updated version of table 3 with the changes highlighted. The numbers of participants who are positive for this measure is much reduced, but our conclusion that there was no difference between the groups is unchanged. The authors apologise for this error. (Table Presented).
Corrigendum: Mental health in UK Biobank: Development, implementation and results from an online questionnaire completed by 157 366 participants (BJPsych Open (2018) 4:3 (83-90) DOI: 10.1192/bjo.2018.12)
Copyright © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2018. There was an error in the author list of this article1 and an author was inadvertently omitted from the article. The author list has now been updated in both PDF and HTML versions. The authors apologise to Daniel Smith for this omission.
OBJECTIVE:Misophonia is a neurophysiological disorder, phenotypically characterized by heightened autonomic nervous system arousal which is accompanied by a high magnitude of emotional reactivity to repetitive and pattern-based auditory stimuli. This study identifies the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in misophonia sufferers, the association between severity of misophonia and psychiatric symptoms, and the association between misophonia severity and gender. METHODS:Fifty-two misophonia sufferers, 30 females (mean age= 40.93 ± 15.29) and 22 males (mean age= 51.18 ± 15.91) were recruited in our study and they were diagnosed according the criteria proposed by Schröder et al The participants were evaluated by the A-MISO-S for the severity of misophonia and the MINI to assess the presence of psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS:The most common comorbid symptoms reported by the misophonia patients were respectively PTSD (N = 8, 15.38%), OCD (N = 6, 11.53%), MDD (N = 5, 9.61%), and anorexia (N = 5, 9.61%). Misophonia severity was associated with the symptoms of MDD, OCD, and PTSD as well as anorexia. There was an indication of a significant difference between men and women in the severity of misophonic symptoms. CONCLUSION:Our findings highlight the importance of recognizing psychiatric comorbidity among misophonia sufferers. The presence of these varying psychiatric disorders' features in individuals with misophonia suggests that while misophonia has unique clinical characteristics with an underlying neurophysiological mechanism, may be associated with psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, when assessing individuals with misophonia symptoms, it is important to screen for psychiatric symptoms. This will assist researchers and clinicians to better understand the nature of the symptoms and how they may be interacting and ultimately allocating the most effective therapeutic strategies.
RATIONALE: Little evidence from large-scale cohort studies exists about the relationship of solid fuel use with hospitalization and mortality from major respiratory diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of solid fuel use and risks of acute and chronic respiratory diseases. METHODS: A cohort study of 277,838 Chinese never-smokers with no prior major chronic diseases at baseline. During 9 years of follow-up, 19,823 first hospitalization episodes or deaths from major respiratory diseases, including 10,553 chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD), 4,398 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 7,324 acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), were recorded. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for disease risks associated with self-reported primary cooking fuel use. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Overall, 91% of participants reported regular cooking, with 52% using solid fuels. Compared with clean fuel users, solid fuel users had an adjusted HR of 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.40) for major respiratory diseases, whereas those who switched from solid to clean fuels had a weaker HR (1.14, 1.10-1.17). The HRs were higher in wood (1.37, 1.33-1.41) than coal users (1.22, 1.15-1.29) and in those with prolonged use (≥40 yr, 1.54, 1.48-1.60; <20 yr, 1.32, 1.26-1.39), but lower among those who used ventilated than nonventilated cookstoves (1.22, 1.19-1.25 vs. 1.29, 1.24-1.35). For CLRD, COPD, and ALRI, the HRs associated with solid fuel use were 1.47 (1.41-1.52), 1.10 (1.03-1.18), and 1.16 (1.09-1.23), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, solid fuel use for cooking was associated with higher risks of major respiratory disease admissions and death, and switching to clean fuels or use of ventilated cookstoves had lower risk than not switching.
Excess risk of major vascular diseases associated with airflow obstruction: a 9-year prospective study of 0.5 million Chinese adults.
Background: China has high COPD rates, even among never-regular smokers. Little is known about nonrespiratory disease risks, especially vascular morbidity and mortality after developing airflow obstruction (AFO) in Chinese adults. Objective: We aimed to investigate the prospective association of prevalent AFO with major vascular morbidity and mortality. Materials and methods: In 2004-2008, a nationwide prospective cohort study recruited 512,891 men and women aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse localities across China, tracking cause-specific mortality and coded episodes of hospitalization for 9 years. Cox regression yielded adjusted HRs for vascular diseases comparing individuals with spirometry-defined prevalent AFO at baseline to those without. Results: Of 489,382 participants with no vascular disease at baseline, 6.8% had AFO, with prevalence rising steeply with age. Individuals with prevalent AFO had significantly increased vascular mortality (n=1,429, adjusted HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.21-1.36). There were also increased risks of hemorrhagic stroke (n=823, HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.27), major coronary events (n=635, HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.22-1.45), and heart failure (n=543, HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.98-2.41). For each outcome, the risk increased progressively with increasing COPD severity and persisted among never-regular smokers. Conclusion: Among adult Chinese, AFO was associated with significantly increased risks of major vascular morbidity and mortality. COPD management should be integrated with vascular disease prevention and treatment programs to improve long-term prognosis.
Importance: When combusted indoors, solid fuels generate a large amount of pollutants such as fine particulate matter. Objective: To assess the associations of solid fuel use for cooking and heating with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study recruited participants from 5 rural areas across China between June 2004 and July 2008; mortality follow-up was until January 1, 2014. A total of 271 217 adults without a self-reported history of physician-diagnosed cardiovascular disease at baseline were included, with a random subset (n = 10 892) participating in a resurvey after a mean interval of 2.7 years. Exposures: Self-reported primary cooking and heating fuels (solid: coal, wood, or charcoal; clean: gas, electricity, or central heating), switching of fuel type before baseline, and use of ventilated cookstoves. Main Outcomes and Measures: Death from cardiovascular and all causes, collected through established death registries. Results: Among the 271 217 participants, the mean (SD) age was 51.0 (10.2) years, and 59% (n = 158 914) were women. A total of 66% (n = 179 952) of the participants reported regular cooking (at least weekly) and 60% (n = 163 882) reported winter heating, of whom 84% (n = 150 992) and 90% (n = 147 272) used solid fuels, respectively. There were 15 468 deaths, including 5519 from cardiovascular causes, documented during a mean (SD) of 7.2 (1.4) years of follow-up. Use of solid fuels for cooking was associated with greater risk of cardiovascular mortality (absolute rate difference [ARD] per 100 000 person-years, 135 [95% CI, 77-193]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.20 [95% CI, 1.02-1.41]) and all-cause mortality (ARD, 338 [95% CI, 249-427]; HR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.03-1.20]). Use of solid fuels for heating was also associated with greater risk of cardiovascular mortality (ARD, 175 [95% CI, 118-231]; HR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.06-1.55]) and all-cause mortality (ARD, 392 [95% CI, 297-487]; HR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.03-1.26]). Compared with persistent solid fuel users, participants who reported having previously switched from solid to clean fuels for cooking had a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (ARD, 138 [95% CI, 71-205]; HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]) and all-cause mortality (ARD, 407 [95% CI, 317-497]; HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79-0.95]), while for heating, the ARDs were 193 (95% CI, 128-258) and 492 (95% CI, 383-601), and the HRs were 0.57 (95% CI, 0.42-0.77) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.57-0.79), respectively. Among solid fuel users, use of ventilated cookstoves was also associated with lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (ARD, 33 [95% CI, -9 to 75]; HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.80-0.99]) and all-cause mortality (ARD, 87 [95% CI, 20-153]; HR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.85-0.96]). Conclusions and Relevance: In rural China, solid fuel use for cooking and heating was associated with higher risks of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These risks may be lower among those who had previously switched to clean fuels and those who used ventilation.
[Association between the frequency of bowel movements and the risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese adults].
Objective: To examine the association between the frequencies of bowel movement (BMF) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: In this study, 510 134 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) were included, after excluding those who reported as having been diagnosed with cancer at the baseline survey. The baseline survey was conducted from June 2004 to July 2008. The present study included data from baseline and follow-up until December 31, 2016. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the HR and the 95%CI of incident CRC with BMF. Results: During an average follow-up period of 9.9 years, 3 056 participants were documented as having developed colorectal cancer. In the site-specific analysis, 1 548 colon cancer and 1 475 rectal cancer were included. Compared with participants who had bowel movements on the daily base, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95%CI) for those who had more than once of BMF were 1.24 (1.12-1.39) for CRC, 1.12 (0.95-1.31) for colon cancer, and 1.37 (1.18-1.59) for rectal cancer. We further examined the association between BMF and CRC, according to the stages of follow-up, the corresponding HR (95%CI) for CRC, colon and rectal cancer were 1.59 (1.36-1.86), 1.43 (1.14- 1.80), and 1.76 (1.41-2.19) for the first five years, while such associations became statistically insignificant in the subsequent follow-up (P for all interactions were <0.05), as time went on. As for CRC, colon or rectal cancers among participants who had lower bowel movements, the risks were not significantly different from those who had bowel movements everyday. Conclusions: Participants who had BMF more than once a day, appeared an increased risk of CRC in the subsequent five years. Since abnormal increase of bowel movements is easily recognizable, programs should be set up on health self- management and early screening for CRC.
Prevalence of smoking and knowledge about the smoking hazards among 170,000 Chinese adults: a nationally representative survey in 2013-2014.
Introduction: Periodic population surveys of smoking behaviour can inform development of effective tobacco control strategies. We investigated smoking patterns, cessation and knowledge about smoking hazards in China. Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey recruited 176,318 people aged ≥18 years across 31 provinces of China in 2013-14, using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling methods. The smoking patterns, cessation and knowledge about smoking hazards were analysed, overall and in population subgroups, adjusting for sample selection weight and post-stratification factors. Results: Among men, 60.7% were ever smokers, with proportions of regular, occasional and former smokers being 46.3%, 5.5%, and 8.8% respectively. Among women, only 2.8% has ever smoked. The prevalence of ever smoking in men was higher in rural than urban areas (63.2% vs 57.6%) and varied from 39.5% to 67.4% across 31 provinces. Among male regular smokers, the mean daily number of cigarettes smoked was 17.8, with mean age at first starting to smoke daily being 20.1 years. Among current smokers, one third (32.6% men, 32.1% women) had tried to quit before and 36.8% (36.8% men, 35.5% women) intended to quit in the future. Of the Chinese adults, 75.9% recognized that smoking was hazardous, with the proportions believing that smoking could cause lung cancer, heart attack or stroke being 67.0%, 33.2% and 29.5%, respectively and with 26.0% reporting that smoking could cause all these conditions. Conclusion: Among Chinese adults, the smoking prevalence remained high in men but was low in women. In both men and women knowledge about smoking hazards was poor. Implications: This study showed that tobacco smoking remained highly prevalent among adult men in China in 2013-14. Moreover, men born in recent decades were more likely to start smoking at younger ages and to smoke more cigarettes than those born in previous generations. There was a large regional variation in male smoking prevalence, with the least economically developed regions having higher prevalence. In contrast, few women in China smoked, especially among those born in recent decades. The contrasting smoking patterns in men and women is likely to result in an increasingly large gender disparity in life expectancy in the coming decades.
Physical activity, sleep and cardiovascular health data for 50,000 individuals from the MyHeart Counts Study.
Studies have established the importance of physical activity and fitness for long-term cardiovascular health, yet limited data exist on the association between objective, real-world large-scale physical activity patterns, fitness, sleep, and cardiovascular health primarily due to difficulties in collecting such datasets. We present data from the MyHeart Counts Cardiovascular Health Study, wherein participants contributed data via an iPhone application built using Apple's ResearchKit framework and consented to make this data available freely for further research applications. In this smartphone-based study of cardiovascular health, participants recorded daily physical activity, completed health questionnaires, and performed a 6-minute walk fitness test. Data from English-speaking participants aged 18 years or older with a US-registered iPhone who agreed to share their data broadly and who enrolled between the study's launch and the time of the data freeze for this data release (March 10 2015-October 28 2015) are now available for further research. It is anticipated that releasing this large-scale collection of real-world physical activity, fitness, sleep, and cardiovascular health data will enable the research community to work collaboratively towards improving our understanding of the relationship between cardiovascular indicators, lifestyle, and overall health, as well as inform mobile health research best practices.
© The Author(s) 2018. All rights reserved. Good quality research depends on good quality data. In multidisciplinary projects with quantitative and qualitative data, it can be difficult to collect data and share it between partners with diverse backgrounds in a timely and useful way, limiting the ability of different disciplines to collaborate. This chapter will explore two examples of the impact of data collection and sharing on analysis in a recent Horizon 2020 project, RealValue. The main insight is that it is not only projects but also the processes within them such as data collection, sharing and analysis that are socio-technical. We shall examine two examples within the project-validating the models and triangulating the qualitative data-to examine data synergy across four dimensions: time (synchronising activities), people (managing and coordinating actors), technology (in this case focusing mainly on connectivity) and quality. Recommendations include developing a data protocol for the energy demand community built on these four dimensions.